: In modern times, my country has been split, geographically divided in history, and the use of cultural development and the use of dialects, which has made Hong Kong, Taiwan and the Mainland have a large difference in translation of foreign proper nouns. One of the typical differences in the language of three places on both sides of the strait is the translation of foreigners’ names. The translation differences of foreigners on the three sides of the strait have a large negative impact on the lives, cultural exchanges and economic development of the people on both sides of the strait. Therefore, it has certain significance and value to make comparative studies.
: Three places on both sides of the Taiwan Strait; place names; translation
Due to historical reasons, Taiwan and the mainland of the motherland have been completely hostile to politics for more than 30 years, and they are completely isolated in economics and culture. Hong Kong has created the unique appearance and personality of Hong Kong due to the years of colonies in Hong Kong. Translation activities are a kind of social behavior. The translator lives in a specific social and historical environment, and its translation consciousness and concepts are influenced and restricted by society. Due to the differences in social background, social system, and living habits, the differences between dialect areas and cultural customs, coupled with different translation methods and guidelines, there are many differences in translation in the translation of the three places on both sides of the strait. The translation of the Mainland people see “Darzer (Hong Kong), Thaicier (Taiwan)”, will not realize that this is the name of the former British Prime Minister Iron Lady Sachiel (wife). Those who do not understand English see it. Gen (Hong Kong) Reagan (Taiwan) and Reagan (Mainland) are also difficult to think of the same person (Reagan). Mainlanders watched Hong Kong and Taiwan news or newspapers. When they saw the “Sydney Olympic Games”, they might not be puzzled. In fact, it refers to the “Sydney Olympic Games”, which is the result of the difference between the translation of the two places. With the contact and exchanges between the three places on both sides of the strait and the increasingly frequent exchanges, the result of the contact and exchanges of language life is that some of the sayings of Hong Kong and Taiwan have been accepted by the mainland, such as buses, milkshakes, and New dollars.
Different people and place names on the three sides of the strait have caused many inconveniences to their people. To a certain extent, the smooth exchange of news dynamics, cultural, science and technology, literature, and academics on both sides of the strait has also hindered commercial cooperation. It is not conducive to the improvement and development of the Chinese national culture.
Principles of translation of foreigners on both sides of the strait and three places
(1) Mainland China
Judging from the history of the translation of human names, the translation of human names has gone through a change from naturalized transliteration to alienation transliteration to sound translation. At present, the mainland translation of foreigners’ names generally follows the principles such as the owner, the convention and the pronunciation standard, and the use of word specifications. ① The name is from the master. The owner refers to the pronunciation of the language of the translation of the country. For example: ENGland is translated as “England” by pronounced English; Germany is translated as “German” as “German”; ROME pronounces it as “Rome” by Italian; Charles de GAULLE is transliterated as Charles Da Goghle by French; Putin, according to Russia, Russia, Russia, The text has the characteristics of soft sound, and should not be translated as “Putin”, but should be translated as “Putin”. ② Stop it. It is agreed that some proper nouns have been in use for many years. Although it is not appropriate, it has been accepted by the public and does not need to be re -translated, so as not to cause confusion in translation. ③ Pronunciation criteria, word specifications. Pronunciation standards, word specifications refer to the accurate pronunciation of the original language and translation language when translating proper nouns. In addition, in order to make the transliteration noun from generating an error concept, pay attention to the use of words to avoid the use of words that are easy to connect with the context or obviously derogatory words, such as the Congo “Congo”. It is not appropriate to translate Mozambique “Mozanbik” into “Mo San Nose”.
(2) Hong Kong
1. The influence of Hong Kong in translating proprietary nouns. Hong Kong’s main languages are English and Chinese, and Cantonese in various dialects of Chinese is strong. Hong Kong has been greatly affected by Cantonese in translation English. For example, a road in Hong Kong Hollywood Road, translated as “Hollywood” (translated as “Hollywood” in the Mainland), Waterloo Road translated name “Wo Dao Lao Dao” (translated as “Waterloo” in the Mainland), Beck HAM translated name “Bi Xianxian “(Translated by the Mainland as” Beckham “),” Bi Xian “Cantonese pronunciation is similar to Beck Ham, although Putonghua’s Bi Xian and Beck Ham’s pronunciation are not close. But for mainlanders who are unfamiliar with Cantonese, these translations are very weird.
2. Concorde translation. Translated a word of foreigners into the surname of Chinese. Such as: For example, the British Prime Minister’s wife Cherie Booth “Peng Xueling”, the CHRISTOPHER PATTEN “Pengdingkang”, foreign scholar Johnking Fair Bank “Fei Zhengqing”, British writer Benard Shaw “Shawnna”, American Ambassador Leighton Stuart “Situ Ren” and so on. Essence
3. Women’s name translation.香港翻译外国的电影明星,特别是英美的女电影明星,喜欢用带有女性特点的中文译名,例如奥黛丽·赫本,香港译名是柯德莉·夏萍,用广东话来读,接近英文,也Everyone knows that it is a woman.
Taiwan’s name and place name for foreign countries are basically translated based on the principles of faith, Da, and Yawei, the senior scholar of the people. The official requirements are also so and respect the starting point that the people think are not specifically standardized or guided by the translator. The translator has always been engaged in translation with agreed translation. In terms of translators, on the one hand, Taiwan is inclined to translate foreigners with the surname of Han nationality. The name of the name of the Taiwanese names is usually the first word. In Taiwan, sometimes the “small surname” of the Han people, such as “Hu” (Hu Sheng/Houyin) “佘” (佘 契/Sachel), “Kor” (Kor/Kor) Essence “Pang” (Ponbiri/Tatto), “Pei” (Perez/Prees), “Hualesha/Wavava), etc. ) On the other hand, in the choice of syllables, in addition to individual European and American names, Taiwan’s translations generally use only two or three words; while the mainland translations strive to show each other’s weights as much as possible. Please see the following groups below The translation, one more word in the mainland than Taiwan; Zhan Sheng/Johnson, Kaschu/Castro, Gobacher/Gorbachev. Two more words, such as Eisenho/Eisenhower, Shevanaz/Shevalda.
The same translation of foreigners in the three sides of the three sides of the three sides of the strait
The large difference in the use of human names, the larger difference is the use of words and syllables.
Avoiding the surname of Han
In order to reflect the principle of “name from the master”, when translating foreigners in the mainland, they generally do not use the surname of Han. Try to use Chinese characters that are not commonly used in Chinese surnames. At a glance, they know that they are foreigners, but they are simply transliterated. The vulgar characters, the name is not necessary to connect with myself. Hong Kong and Taiwan translitements often use the surname of Han in China to go to the first syllable or phonetic of the harmonic sound, so that foreigners are sinicized. The more obvious “wearing”, “firewood”, “佘” and other Chinese surnames used when translating “thatCher”, other commonly used Han surnames include “Hu” (Hu Sheng/Hussein) “Ai” /Edison) “Ke” (Kor/Kohl), “Peius/Prees)” Shi “(Syhunooham),” Jia “(Jia” (Jia “(Jia” (Jia “(Jia” (Jia ” Gagalin, Gaglin), Ponch (Pon “(Pontibad/Tattoo Pinu Dou) and so on. Another example is Clinton, the mainland version is Clinton. Taiwan probably thinks that the word “Ke” is not good, nor does it like his surname, so he named him “Ke” – “Clinton”.
Each sound of the mainland is translated when the translator’s name is translated, including the consonants of the auxiliary voice. For example, former Philippine President Estrada was translated as “Esterada” and Eisenhower was translated as “Eisenhower”. Generally speaking, Hong Kong and Taiwan’s name translation is shorter than the mainland. Due to the surname of the first word Han, the name of the Chinese chemical syllable naturally shrank. When translating in Taiwan, each sound may not be translated, especially the consonants at the end of the word can be given up. “T” ate. In this way, Taiwan’s translation foreigner name often does not require more than 3 Chinese characters, and it is not taboo in terms of Chinese names in terms of words. Sometimes it is even intentionally selected by Chinese surnames to translate foreigners’ names to achieve the effect of “elegance”. For example, “Sadam Hussein” said by the mainlanders “Hu” in Taiwan “Hu” is called “Hu Sheng”.
Women’s name translation
Now, the lady of Clinton is more beautiful than her husband, so her name also needs to mention it. Hillar Clinton is “Hillary” in the mainland. Taiwan thinks that people are a woman, so they are translated into “Hillary”. For more than 2005, Merkel, a candidate for the female Prime Minister of the German Alliance Party, translated as Merkel in the mainland. To a little woman’s characteristics.
Hong Kong bridge role
Hong Kong has been ruled by British colonial for 150 years, and has vigorously promoted English to make it all aspects of society. At that time, Hong Kong lacked formal and powerful Chinese official norms, coupled with geopolitical relationships, made Hong Kong a intermediary land in Taiwan. As a bridge on both sides, it strengthened contact with the mainland after the return of Hong Kong in 1997. There is no gap between the mainland and Taiwan, so in most cases, it is consistent with the translation of the mainland.
The same translation of foreign place names on the four sides of the strait and three places
Generally speaking, the place name is mainly transliterated as the name of the person. The difference between the three places on both sides of the strait is still in the choice of words and syllables. The transliteration often translator dialect or different Chinese characters, so the three often use different transliteration words. It is the choice of syllables affecting words. Generally speaking, the translation of Hong Kong in mainland China is close, while Taiwan is quite different. For example, from the pronunciation of the original English word, “Laibiria” is more accurate than “Liberia”. It was also translated as “Mosari Nose”, and later changed to “Mozambique” by Premier Zhou Enlai. In terms of words, Taiwan and the mainland Hong Kong are also significantly different. Such as “Disnai” and “Disney”, “Vatican Static” and “Vatican”, Singapore is divided into “stars” and “new”, “Jia” and “plus” are divided into, and even more strange is Sydney Hong Kong and Taiwan The translation of “Sydney” is translated into a formal composite word. This is also affected by the transliteration of Cantonese, and “Sydney” is closer to the primary sound. The biggest difference is Cannes. The mainland obviously uses Pinyin translations, and Taiwan has the sound of “Sri”. Only Hong Kong’s “Kang” plus “city” transliteration also pointed out the category. Compound word. From the translation of place names, the mainland is more preferred to Chinese pinyin, while Hong Kong and Taiwan harmonize transliteration and use Chinese characters related to the characteristics of colleagues. Think of beautiful scenery and so on. The mainland selection still adheres to official authority. In the same term, the mainland adopts the translation method, and Hong Kong is semi -translated, such as
The mainland strictly translates as “San Wendeson and Greennin” in strict accordance with English, while the first part of Hong Kong transliterates is translated as “Shengfen Sheng and the Green Nada Islands”. Unlike, “San Weison and Greanine”.
The differences between the translation between the three sides of the strait are completely caused by the translation, which causes this difference to have a profound historical source. Therefore, it is difficult to eliminate differences. It is difficult to rely on the translator. The differences in cross -strait translation originated from the long -term confrontation between cross -strait politics, resulting in differences in various aspects of economic and cultural life. The ideal countermeasures are of course ending the confrontation, implementing unity, eliminating the differences in all aspects of social life, and thus removing obstacles for the unified translation. In the current circumstances, we have to face reality and find practical ways.
The language translation between the mainland and the Taiwan cannot be affected by politics. Both sides will consciously and unconscious Whether or not as the approval criteria. The mainlanders are accustomed to the translation of the mainland, and they will feel that the translation of Taiwan will be difficult to accept many claims to Taiwan, but don’t forget that they may have the same view.
To solve the difference in translation, we must be prepared for a long time. The difference between the translation on both sides of the strait is not formed a day or two, so we should not expect it. It can eliminate the differences between the translation between the two sides of the strait overnight. Now that we advocate integration, we must not be in a hurry and take advantage of the trend. Second, we must take the difference in translation correctly. The difference between translation or language is of course not conducive to communication with each other, but the same language must be completely unified, and it is unlikely that thoroughly standardized. It is difficult to achieve this even in mainland China. It is two political entities under different political systems, and the unified difficulties can be imagined. Moreover, as long as the difference does not hinder communication, there is no need to fury it. The view that “only one standard can only have one” is obviously questionable. Third, we must have a tolerant mentality. Language translation belongs to the category of culture. Cultural integration is different from political unity. It is difficult to be accepted by any of the advantages of the population, or an orthodox excuse. Fourth, although there are various differences between the three places on both sides of the strait, after all, there are similar cultures and other similar places. By strengthening the solution to the intercharge for discounts, the relatively unified goals are finally achieved.
Article Author: Zhou Fengqin
Article Source: Journal of Western Anhui College, No. 4, 2009, Issue 4
Draft selection: Geng Geng
Edit: Hong Shan
School pair: gorgeous
Editor in charge: Hao Zhijian
Jiangxi place name research group