If you are asked why reading or reading is for what, the people who love books have their own different answers, some are to get knowledge, update knowledge, and some have a pleasure of reading the process, some are time to send time, and they have become a kind of eating The same daily habits, don’t need much reason. In these reasons, reading is a private matter. This means that we will decide what to read, when reading, and how to read it. Of course, when people produce changes in a certain concept, they also have their publicity. In fact, in both private sex and publicity, reading may also be otherwise, such as for social, is “book friends”.
Because I read a book, participate in a reading meeting, we may know one or a group of friends; we will show someone to others, like books, disgusting books, and taking a self-tack card, showing the place and way of reading reading . At this time, when we open a book, it is no longer a full sense of personal reading. This is a social behavior that will consider others.
British historian Abbay Williams’ “bookmaster: the book of the 18th century” is a “book friend”, but in this translation of the new book, we look It is a social class social class in the 18th century. At the time, with the rise of printing and publication, reading a family event different from any other entertainment. Reading is a kind of social fashion and a family social situation. The people who read the book highlight personal cultivation, image and knowledge according to moral etiquette standards. On the contrary, “book friends” also affects and shaped the writing and publication of the time.
TV Series “Normal People” (Normal People 2020) stills.
Indeed, reading the interaction between people and people, “book friends” is a way to let book knowledge flow. However, because “social” is a class inevitable activities that need to consider others, when reading a social activity, it can restrain the knowledge of the book, and the “performance desire” of taking the card, of course, it is best.
The book below is selected from the Beijing University Press, “Book Friends: The Book of Books of the 18th Century”, and extracting, the title is the resulting member.
Original author | [英] Abbeier Williams
Excerpt | Luo Dong
“Book friends: Book of Books in the 18th Century”, [Ying] Abby Garms Williams, He Ji Translated, Peking University Press, November 2021.
Read, a family event
In a sound home space, there will always be some entertainment activities being considered more appropriate, more appropriate. James Fusse (1720-1796, England “, in the discussion of the family’s leisure time, the potential evil – playing card is the main activity of the night, and he believes that it is seriously violated.” Rules for human feelings and friendship. “The sinking of the board” should be changed to a more elegant event, especially the red embroidery. In his opinion, the biggest meaning of female red is that people can make other promotional activities. People are also different for different female red evaluation – more popular than complex “exquisite”, “loose and casual patterns”, because they don’t have much eyes, how much time does not spend, and more practical .
Fusi is an example of a good woman:
She is also never idle when she is sitting … she is good red, and the taste is good, no matter whether she is still outside … I always don’t stop the lives, some for practical, some for decoration; at the same time, She also helped the continuation of the continuation of the conversation, so paid to the talents, I have never seen someone can better. In order to enrich life, they will improve their cultivation, and she will often read aloud at home, and she and her girlfriends are sitting on the side, while enjoying the needle lines in the hands.
Fusi is in an example, because his perfect model is never lazy in the leisure time, use this effort to do the Wusi praise: she is busy living, also participating in rationalism Among the conversations – there are also the most important, she listened to others to read books, thus expanding their minds with her girlfriends.
An indoor portrait of an eighteenth century European family.
Reading is a double benefit. It is easy to make the readers who don’t do unensuitable, and can give fun and promote the background sound of people in other families. The members of the “Blue Sock” group, the Mary Delny, recommended by the Tours of the Hebrides, listened to the rope. Optimum reading. Leisurely lives in the Northern Wales, Eleanor Butler, often reads alone, and Sarah Ponsonby, and Ponnet is listening while listening, while busy painting, Make a map, embroidered cross stitch or decoction diary. In the London diary of Elizabeth Tipard, almost all readings are a woman reading, while others are busy with other things.
It is not just women. Robert Sharp is a teacher in Yorkshire and a shop owner. He claims: “(At least for me) Nothing to see someone is lazy in the chair, there is no boring, and even the book doesn’t look more, if it is me, I would rather endure the hateful punishment of the grinding Don’t let me read. “Nicholas Brendel took care of the house, and I always didn’t know how tired when packing the courtyard – his diary is a busy life of the home care home:” I tried to repair Hua Hu The knife, Mr. Aldree reads a prediction of Mr. Bristatf. “
Two worlds working with reading
For those who have not yet entered the middle class, the relationship between reading and work is different. James Lackington, self-learned, recalls, and he is extremely eager to study when the shoeman apprentice is. He and other apprentices are preferred to sleep as much as possible in the evening. “One of us sits up until the end of the time, when we all got up, it is from my friends, It is also your humble servant, John, read the people who are working. ” Hugh Miller is born in a coastal family of Cromrty, a coastal town of Scotland. His uncle James made a horses, while trying to study the scene was remembered in a diary:
He often looks back next to him; the other of his home is his pavement. Winter night, he will move a bench from there, put it in the living room in the home, a circle around the fireplace Chair. His younger brother Alexander, that is, my uncle, I have a difference between a night, he will read some interesting articles for everyone before the fireplace – he always sits opposite the bench, so that it is still working The person can borrow light. When the family member is the main circle, there will be two thousand intelligent neighbors from time to time. They will come over and listen to the reading; they are read by the books for a while, and they will mention when they talk.
Can I take care of reading when I work, depending on the working environment. In the workshop of the craftsman, the constraint is relatively loose, and the young apprentices may climb with senior mechanics and bosses, and these people are more capable of burning the overhead of the reading, and it is more easier to form a small group for sharing. People engaged in collective work can enjoy the benefits of conversation. The hunger readers do their best to find a chance to read. John Jones, John Jones, describes yourself, have a good evening table, just to take a few minutes to see the collection on the restaurant bookshelf. A unknown stonemason, giving people around, his horse is trained to recognize the road so that he can read it on the road.
These narratives have shown that reading is a very different role because of the different environmental differences. For men and women with idle gentry, the middle class, some people read aloud at the time of busyness, both accompanying, and the dexterity of virtue, because no one is nothing in your time. But for men and women who are busy working, the reading of the work is self-improvement, which can both learn from the hard work of work.
The 18th Century “Country Book Club” cover (1788).
Such two worlds – will read aloud as the background sound of the hair time and work earning money and adhere to the reading – collided in the 18th century family. Servants often participate in sharing reading. Gtrude Savil has several pleasant walks, all with maida Pierre and a book. Thomas Turner’s maid often listened to her employer reading, Hester Piozzi, when she reads “Spectator” to her daughter, her maid is also listening to it. Often it is told, there is a brunt of combing haircut and curling powder. Such habits have such a prevail, and a “reading clue” published on the lady’s magazine mentioned this popular habit. The article claims that “Single hair is very suitable for reading – go to the popular books in the circulation library, the fragrance of the pint of the book is broken”. ” The editor of the magazine continues to be recommended, “” Because it is very likely torture for one hour of the hair, I will specialize in reading newspapers and political booklets – so I can play all the things I am disgusted once. “
Watch a book
The female model of Fusi writes can do both needlework and keep chat, but also act as a listener: only to witness, can he say that she is a moral benchmark. Although people repeatedly said that at home can enjoy the true freedom, but family entertainment is often inseparable from display. This is important to witness the patriarchal guests or visit the guests.
The interior decoration has developed into the mid-18th century, and the household began to carefully spend the space for hospitality. In order to leave a visitor, the male and female owner purchased a large number of wallpapers, carpets and complete sets of porcelain. As the British middle class collectively caught the consumption boom, their houses were also filled with fashionable novelty, used to show and show their visitors. Tea set, silver plate, sugar clip, wickle, pepper can, lacquer tea tray, and a variety of objects are boarded, and they are purchased in a large number of purchases, used to show off. The author of the “Lady Guide” reminded that when a visiting in the form, a guest often became a play-in-law: “Many people go to others to visit, but in fact they don’t care about the death of people.” The author claims that this Class visits “more like a spy uncomfortable sprout, not friendly kind support.”
There is a kind of visit to a special trip to see how others have, and there is also a group of people who are enthusiastic to showcase people. James Gillray’s satirical portrait of James Gillray, “Farm Main Jales” Farmer Giles and His Wife Shewing Off Their Daughter Betty On Her Return From School is middle This is desired in class family culture. In the picture, the left neighbors have been summoned. Everyone enclose a circle, listening to his daughter with a piano, her parents are smiling, but they don’t pay attention, in fact, no people (including dogs) Listen.
James Gille Works “Farm Main Jales” is showing yourself from the school returned to Betty. ” (Image from website www.Artic.edu)
“The Lady’s Preceptor” is a reliable suggestion of how to chat with people when providing readers in the middle of the eighteenth century. When you are a speech, you need to be careful and pre-prepared, and you will never be cautious about the hair accessories of the skirt. The book reminds the reader, don’t “only touch the first pug, the hair is like the loss … No, it will be,”
If the occasion of visiting, you can not provide you with a chat question, don’t be unprepared, you must talk about the weather and time for a while. Preparing some appropriate topics in advance, you can’t let you control the situation.
Chat is also a manifestation in social interactions, even if a family visits, the atmosphere is relatively official, and it is also important to chat. In theory, the conversation can bring the best side of the people, because “It is always a whispering to the beads when they gather together, and they don’t think these words when they are alone.” But chat needs to exercise, as the assessor of the Erst family said: “The witness of the world is only displayed in the dialogue. Since this makes them shine, they must focus on this.”
I know that chat skills are essential, I am afraid it is a poor Dudley Ryder. Diade’s diary, teenage time is short, but it is extremely frankly how he learned how to communicate. Most of the time, Rye really worried about what to say and how to say. He pays attention to other people who can talk to people. I only feel ourselves: “When they are together, they are particularly easy to be stupid and uneasy.” Ryd believes that reading can help him talk in the crowd. He is not guiding the talents, taught the work, but he felt stylish, and he can effect the book. So he mentioned that there is no book than “He Lus’ work is more appropriate to learn the elegant writing and talk, and how to read it.” He admires Boileau, and claims to read “the Tatler”, “to improve his own style, understand what he thinks and tells the story, and the world, insight of humanity “.
Wetden (R.V.Weyden, 1399-1464) works.
It is worth considering that this period of literary works in literary works – it is self-contained, and it is funny as a standard of life, regardless of how it doesn’t matter if you are with a person’s own personality. When Lai De is reading, it is anxious and self-doubting, which may not represent all men in the 18th century, but we see that he will use the content of the book to relieve personal social dilemma. He couldn’t see his own sister, think she was wasting time to read the wrong book: she “lacks chat talents, very little speaking, reading more than the knight novel, the romantic legend also has tragic works, and extremely love, but she I don’t know anything about human nature, this is a big shortcoming. ” Some books can help you chat, and some will only hinder.
Whether it seems to have more skinless today, Lai De speaks to how to learn to learn to talk, and the role of reading in it, these are important to understand how people understand how to use books in the 18th century. James Fussen said in his “On Female Virtue With Intellectual Accomplish”), James “will be considered to be the basics of talented cultivation. He claims that reading can also be able to teach, it makes people learn to enjoy alone, but also “can make you bloom in chat”.
Here we will see that this way of using books affects the art of book publishing, especially those that provide material for social situations.
From women to men: use reading as a performance for the outside world
In the environment in the family, the books read and what they are talking, often is a performance for the outside world, not just the fundamentals of the talent and personality. Writers, newspapers writers, who are contemptuous, and women readers who are in the living room in order to meet the expectations, listen to others to read book sections. Prepare to receive visitors. After the guest is coming, the topic often turns to the book that just put down. Therefore, the book is also a special selection, so as not to surprise the guests, so that when he goes to the next family, she will go out.
The woman who is reading is a scene. She is talking to her talking, and she is a typical indicator of personal and family. In Martino, this type of powder is obviously gender.
The book reflects the end of the hostess, and the entire 18th century publication and novels often use the contact between the characters, such as mentioning the name of the book in the family as a character or not. In the drama “of Richard Sheridan”, Lydia Languish is a young lady in the romance novel. Before the parents have to enter her room, she has to cover up her books that she is only reading: “I, my dear Lucy, hide these books. Fast, fast. Pickle” (Peregrine Pickle) Throw it under the dressing table, throw “Roderick Random) into the wardrobe, put” innocent adultery “into the” The Whone Duty Of “, put” Egypt ” Mword Aimworth stuffed into the sofa … Leave a buddhism to teach at the table. “The novel was quickly stuffed to the corner, exiting the line of sight, leaving people, only the decent book – Teach the “Everyone’s Treasure” and the preaching of the Fusi.
The film adaptation version of “Jane Eyre 2011) in the nineteenth century family reading scene, the picture shows the drama.
Male reading is also similar. At that time, there was an anonymous ironic poetry, in order to respond to Jonathan Swift, “The Lady’s Dressing Room” (“The Lady’s Dressing Room”, selected the school building of the young man as the subject. Swift’s first name describes a man who has witnessed his beloved person: the rouge powder is stacked, all the dirt, the house floating with sweat, the messy scene made him disgusting. As a response, irony is the “School Description” (“A Description of a College Room”), leading the reader to a young man in the city, the young man in the city is confusing moral world:
All color books are expanding,
Scottish song, profound philosophy,
Here is a benevolend, there is a few miles,
A Rochester is a “public prayer”;
Next to Tiroson is a French novel,
Devoted Sos and the township of the country dance pile in one place.
We saw the male moral level from the table: lyrics, dance steps, Tiroson’s brigade, the classic geometry, the classic geometry of Europe, the arms of Rochester, and “public prayers”, all mixed Together.
Original author | [英] Abbeier Williams
Excerpt | Luo Dong
Teter some school pair | Liu Baoqing