In 1187, “Kyiv Chronicle” (
) For the first time, the word Ukraine appeared, but from historical considerations, Ukraine mainly passed two stages: Ruthenia to Russia. Regarding the Middle Ages, people are most commonly said to Kievan Rus. Combined with the historical process, Danylo Husar Struk divided the history of Ukrainian literature into six periods: The Kyivan, The COSSACK, The VernaCular ), The Renaissance of the 1920s, The Pre-Independence, The Contemporary.
If you are familiar with the history of literature in Eurasia, you will find that the history of Ukrainian literature basically follows history, spoken literature, religious literature, classicalism, Baroque literature, romanticism, realism, modernism, postmodernism, and postmodernism of literature history narrative This kind of literary history narrative is generally European centralism. However, due to the history of Ukraine and its local culture, Ukrainian literature is very different from typical Eurasian literature, and it is difficult for us to find such a complicated and staggered case in other places that are relatively compliance with typical narratives, but as for its performance In words, Ukrainian literature is still a more typical Eurasian literature. As far as modern literature alone, Ukraine literature seems to be difficult to fully apply to typical modern literature growth paradigms in other regions such as postcolorism, orientalism, and foodism. In view of the current research progress, “What is Ukrainian Literature (History)?” It is still a proposition to be answered.
Before talking about the history of Ukrainian literature, you need to ask a question: Are Chinese familiar with Ukrainian literature? The answer may only be: relatively familiar, but lack of in -depth understanding. The closest Ukrainian literature from Chinese readers is Nicholas Goglis, Isaac Babel, S. A. Alekseyevich. The first two in China are related to Lu Xun. They did not belong to Ukraine, but they were born in Ukraine or once lived in Ukraine. The famous writers who were born after Ukraine and migrated to other parts include: Abraham Goldfaden, David Burliuk, Aaron David Gordon (Aaron David Gordon) Ahad Ha-AM, Henry Roth, Alexander Dovzhenko, Clarice Lispector, Ilia Campeter, Alexander Dovzhenko Ilya Kaminsky, some of them almost created an era.
For the Chinese intellectual community, Ukrainian literature mainly includes the “Igor Expedition” (
Slovo o plaku igoreve
), Taras Shevchenko, Ilya Kaminsky, all three related to poetry. The translation of Ukrainian literature in China is about twenty or thirty. Lanke was presented in the history of the 1950s to the 1980s. Representative, one of the most important English poets in contemporary contemporary, Kurkov is the chairman of the Ukraine Branch of the International Pen Society and writer Russian World Literature.
So, what is Ukrainian literature (history)? This article tries to provide you with some inspiration.
During the Kyiv Ros period, Ukrainian literature was mainly composed of translation literature and folk verbal literature. The popularity of Christ in the 10th century has promoted the translation and adaptation of religious texts. The source is mainly from Lady Balgsla and Greek. In addition to the Gospel, the Biography of the Apostle, and the Psalm, the author of Ukraine is also keen to preach and the story of the saints. For example
Izbornik of sviatoslav
), It is written on 266 sheet paper, with a total of 34 volumes. The pages are full of images such as saints, birds, beasts, and constellations. In addition, there are proverbs “Bee” (bee “(
), Preaching work “About Law and Grace” (preaching about law and grace “(
Slogo o zakoni I Blahodati
The best preaching literature during the Kyiv period is the Kyiv Cave Sutra (
Kyivan Cave Patericon
), The current version of two 15th -century editors. At the beginning of the 13th century, the two monks used letter body and recorded 20 popular stories involving religion. The Kenfu Cave also records a large number of precious historical documents, such as prisoners of war, salt industry monopoly, Demonology, Varangians, etc., which are more about religious classics and ascetic life, but this is also this also It just reflects the decline of the life of the monastery, so it mainly shows the secular appearance in a anti -worldly way, so some people compare it with modern novels. One of the most famous clips of the Kenfu Cave Sutra is “Saint Boris and Herbal” (
Saints Borys and Hlib
), They are the earliest saints, but their brothers who have been caught in the first recruitment of their elder brother, but whether this story is in line with historical facts still needs to be verified.
“Param and Yosavat” (
Barlaam and Josaphat
) It provides us with a sample of cross -cultural communication. Its earliest background was “Buddha’s Sutra” (
), Passed Greek, Persian, Arabic, Hebrew, Ethiopian, Armenian, Georgian, German, French, Italian, Slavic and other multi -language translation and change, and finally took root in Ukraine. The main outline of the story is that the Indian prince Josavut converted to Christianity under the education of monastery. Now we are easy to find that Jakyamuni is Shakyamuni.
The most important work of Ukraine in the Middle Ages is “Igor Expedition” (
Slovo O Polku Ihorevi
To. Although the “Igor Far Existence” is also shared by Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia, it mainly exists in the literature and history of Ukraine. The language it uses is Ukraine. It is similar, and at the same time, the “Igor Expedition” is also related to Ukrainian folk poetry. For the sub -sections and rhythm of “Igor Expedition”, you can refer to the study of Harvey Goldblatt. “Igor Expedition” was re -discovered in 1795. Its creation was roughly 12th century. At present, the author is unknown, but most scholars think that they come from Kyiv. In a rough statement, “Igor Expedition” and “Song of Roland”, “The Song of Heide”, “Song of the Nibel Long Gen” also stated, but Where the specific connection is currently lacking in detail, it is more accurate to associate with Boian Culture.
In short, “Igor Expedition” describes the epic history of Prince Rose’s expedition. At that time, the forces of the Principality became more and more powerful. It can be said that there were brothers’ walls inside, and there was a crisis of invasion of Mrs. Polo. In 1185, Igor hoped that with his own troops, he rushed across the Polov grassland and reached the coast of the Black Sea. Even so, the tone of “Igor Far Existence” is still exciting, singing, and patriotism. Through the last chapter, we can easily discover this. Dahai Fu arrived at Kyiv ./ Igor followed Borchovo/to the Virgin of Birorgiey ./ All the villages are happy, and all towns are happy. “
In 1240, the Mongolians captured Kyiv, and Ukrainian literature was silent for more than two centuries. At that time, only the Gali -Volinia region remained relative independence under Ukraine, but soon fell into the hands of Poland and Lithuania.
From Baroque to realism
Cossack had already been active in the south of Kyiv, and later developed its own private armed forces, and eventually formed a social class to become the rulers of the region. The Cossack Uprising, especially the Hermenzky Uprising, also marks the birth of Ukraine as a sovereign country. At the same time, Russia also began to intervene in Ukraine, and the Russian -Ukraine dispute officially kicked off. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the printing machine entered Ukraine, and the first batch of prints in Ukraine was born. The first printed matter came from the University of Bologna, the President of Bologna, Yuriy Drohobych, but it was not produced in Ukraine. In 1573 and 1574, the church deacon Ivan Fedorovych established the first printing factory and publisher in Ukraine in Lvoda, Ostroh Press. Soon after, many publishing houses emerged in Lavff, which also became a publishing center around the countries around.
The impact of religion on literature is still great, but the specific form is quite modern. Later generations call this temporary state as Baroque literature. For example, the Lviv Dormation Brotherhood, Kyiv Epiphany Brotherhood, Kyiv-Mohyla Academy played a key role in Baroque literature production in Baroque Essence The debate -derived academic theory (Scholarly Exposés) and Homiletics were extremely popular during this period. In addition, there are historical narratives, such as “Chronicles” of Teodosi Safonovych (TEODOSII Safonovych “(
), InnoCent’s “Summary” (
To. The above can be regarded as part of the literary literature. Baroque literature has a strong connection with such literature, but the former mainly refers to more pure literature. The excessive modification and playful rising style of Baroque literature presents strong fables and illusions.
), Ivan Maksymovych (Ioan Maksymovych “(Mary Mary” (Mary “(Mary” (
), Hryhorii Skovoroda “Divine Comedy Garden” (Hryhorii Skovoroda “(
Sad bozhestvennykh perini
), “Basni Khar ‘Kovskiia),” Praise Book “by anonymous author (
) They are relatively representative works. In addition, there are some relatively secular poems, but no classic poets have emerged. During this period, Ukraine’s drama was mainly a combination of Western European tradition and local experience.
There is a genre in the Cossack period and vernacular period, that is, the historical period of Baroque literature, classicism, romanticism, and realism. This genre is Dumas. Overall, Duma is a folk song that is accompanied by Kobzar, the poets, accompanied by the instruments such as Bandura, Relya, or LIRA. Duma does not have a fixed syllable structure. Poetry line ranges from 4 to 40 syllables, but has a strong rhythm. The specific origin of Duma is unclear, but it is the product of secular culture combining the literature of the academy. Some scholars have noticed the related characteristics of Duma and Serbian historical facts. Duma mainly talks about the war between the Lauret and the Turks, the war between Cossack and Poland. The ancient Duma is known for its lyric characteristics, sad tone, and profound moral insight.
In modern history, Duma and Cobza were first activated by the December party leader Requeryev (кондратий фёдорович рылеев), and then pushed to the extreme by Taras Shevchenko. Throughout the history of Ukrainian literature, Kobza was almost given a shaman -style intermediary identity between history, heaven, and God, while Kobaz of Xiefuqinko represented the highest person. Xiefuqinkot is a serf in Ukraine, but he has a big ambition. After he came to Peterburg with the landlord, he even associated his destiny with painting and poetry. When watching Buruolov’s work, Xiefuqinko kept thinking about the geographical and history of Blind Music Koco, Haida Mark Uprising, and Ukraine, and wrote his earliest work. “My poor Heteman’s leaders flashed in front of my eyes, and there were many grasslands of the Tomb Tomb of the Araka, showing in front of my eyes, my beautiful, my poor Ukraine, refers to Following all its purity and flawless melancholy beauty, it appeared in front of my eyes … So I thought about it: I can’t transfer the eyes of my soul from this kind and charming charm. “
“Selected Poetry of Shefuqinko”
) It was the name of the first collection of poems in Xiefuqinko. He had just taken off the serfs and had not yet obtained the identity of the free artist, and he had not been prison. With reference to Xiefuqinko’s life, Kobaz also has the image of the fighter of truth and justice. According to D. Chyzhevskyi, the essence of Xiefuqinko is the heart, that is, growing thoughts, desires and feelings from the heart. According to statistics, the “heart” in Xiefuqinko’s poem has a total of 1146 times, which is 2.5 times that of Christ. There are various kinds of rotten, heating, tearing, being washed, sincere hearts, and so on. But “Heart” is a cruel fact. Xiefuqinko later described, “In order to meet your requirements, the short history of my life I wrote in this disorderly narrative, to be honest, the price it pays is more than what I want. It’s still big. How many years have disappeared! How many fading flowers! I bought it with my own efforts from the fate -is it to die? Explanation: It is terrible, it is particularly terrible to me, because my brothers and sisters -in my own narrative, I think of them with painful moods -until now, they are still serf Now they are still serfs! “Shefuqinko has never understood that he will become the highest idol of Ukrainian literature, just like Tolstoy and Dha Ervsky to Russian literature. According to Marko Pavlyshyn, Eastern European literature is respected by literary figures, and Western European literature is respected by classic text.
Shefuqinko was particularly dissatisfied with Nicholas Gogh, thinking that he had alienated his Ukraine, while Shefuqinko was very attached to Ukraine. In 1847, Shefuqinko clarified the reason why I wrote in Ukraine in the new edition of “Kobza”, “My soul is shrouded in huge sorrow. I heard that sometimes I read such news: Poland: People are publishing books, Czechs, Serbian, Bulgarian, Black Mountains and Russians are publishing books. But I have never heard of the news of Ukraine publishing books. It seems that we have no own voice. My compatriots, this Why? Maybe you are afraid of being disturbed by foreign journalists? Don’t be afraid! Don’t care about them … don’t care about the Russians. Let them write how to write, and how can we write it. They have their own language Ethnic, we are also. Let the people judge who’s work is better. “Shefuqinko’s call for Ukraine is not only the inherent estimation of nationalism, but also a logo for the restart of local thoughts.
During the Portal Sak period, classical literature, that is, literature with lofty character, is a broad -language literature in a general literature centered on high -level languages. However, the lofty literature of Ukraine did not leave a classic. The main classics came from the low-level language. The epic of Ivan Kotliarevsky, Ivan Nekrashevych’s “Market”, these works are more like the beginning of modern Ukrainian literature. In 1836, Ukraine’s first vernacular literature “Degiezt River Ningfu” (
) Published in Hungary, but was banned in Caliusia and other places. The romanticism that continues classicism is “Book of Genesis of the People in Ukraine” (
KNYHY BYTIIA UkraïnS’Koho Narodu
), “Black Council” (
) Waiting for the book as a sign. The center of romanticism is in Halkov, and Shefuqinko is the most important poet in the trend of romanticism. Next is realism, represented by Marko Vovchok, Stepan Rudansky, and several drama. During the vernacular period, the publication and cultural exchanges in Ukraine were limited, and most of the time were reviewed and prohibited. The results were not considerable, but drama creation benefited quite. Publishing ban in 1876 “Emes” (
) It becomes permanent after release. On the whole, the origin of Ukraine’s modern literature is very bumpy. It is not until the end of the 19th century and early 20th century that it can be compared with the same period of literature in Eurasia.
Rosnia’s Supreme Council (1849), abolition of serf system, 1905 revolution, and founding Lada in the Central Ukraine (1917), Ukrainian liberation cause has a long history. And this period is also the period of modernism.
It is Ivan Franko that introduced us to modern literature in Ukraine. Franko is the literary everyone in Ukrainian history after the history of Ukraine. Franco is similar to Lu Xun in China and Karl Kraus in Austria, and his life is inseparable from newspapers and periodical media, arguments, and progressism. Franco has participated in the writing of the writings include “Tongren”, “Labor”, “Friends of the Community”, “World”, “Star”, “Contract”, “Truth”, “Life and World”. And due to strict speech control, unprepared ethnic consciousness, and modernism to be carried out, Franco’s career has been oppressed and monitored. But Franco agrees with the literary and artistic cause of nationality to dedicate himself. He also devoted himself to his life. He wrote more than a thousand works. The category was everything, and he translated a lot of literature at the same time. Since the late 1980s and early 1990s, Franco has been closely related to progressive writers, and his reputation has also increased with the Japanese. According to his work, Franco’s progressism mainly comes from his proletariat, and this is the inherent vitality of his literature. In 1898, Franco announced at his own commemorative conference that “the son of the peasant who grew up as a black bread who eats crops, and believes that the labor of his life to these ordinary people is his own duty. ! “”
Although Franco is mainly considered populist, he did not exclude individualism and modern elements in literature. Franco “The Secret of Poetry Creation” in 1989 (
Iz Sekretiv POETYCHNOï TVORCHOSTI
) When it comes to real poetry, it can help people become more lofty and ideal world citizens, and relieve people from daily misfortune and self -interest. Of course, his poetic is generally the result of populism and individualism. We can discover this from his expression. “The poet creates his image, penetrates it with his fantasies, and illuminates from different sides. It, through the means of poetics, he tried to evoke the atmosphere that might be in the same state and the same power in the reader’s soul … Considering the psychological perception and association law of poetry, this goal is best to use the simplest. The combination of means and specific images makes the poem touches the most hidden string in our soul when it is hidden, and disclose the broad vision of emotions and life. And plastic image, but these images will not leave deep traces in our soul … If the poet’s personality is immature, low -level, and disagreement, then even if his poetry has a huge talent, it will not not be a great talent, it will not not be a great talent. It will improve ourselves and will not touch our soul. “
Before the 1920s, the main characters of modern literature in Ukraine were: Hnat Khotkevych, Lesya Ukrainka, and Mikhailo Kotsiubynsky , Vasyl Stefanyk, Petro Karmansky, Oleksander Oles, Olha Kobylianska, Olha Kobylianska , Volodymyr Vynychenko. They are based on different places, such as Kyiv, Halkov and other places. They have different political orientation, some associations, and some are not, but they are basically accepted by college education and have been inspired by modernist frenzy.
The next generation is relatively systematic, the organizational community is relatively strong, and there are more assistance between various genre rooms, such as Yurii Lavrinenko, Mikola Zerov (Mykola Zerov) , Pavlo Tychyna, Mykola Bazhan, Mykhaylo Semeenko, Mykola Khvylovy, Mikhaylo Semenko Mykola Kulish. They are divided into HART, Vaplite, Revolutionary Literature Writers (Mars), ASPANFUT, Neoclassicist, Pluh, Zakhidna Ukraina, etc. Different communities. Time soon came to “Rozstrilyane Vidropzhennya” or “Red Renaissance”, which was the unrealized Renaissance. Pavlo Tigner practiced a path to integrate modernism into socialist realism. The imprisonment and massacre have always been a dark line of Ukrainian literature. There were Vasyl Stus and others in the front, and then Maksym Rylsky Olesya Ulianenko and others. At the same time, it also created a group of Ukrainian exile literature and diaspora literature. Among them, the main groups were Ukrainian Art Movements, New York Group of Poets, and Modernity.
Starting from exile literature, it is easy for us to discover the connection between the Soviet Union and the contemporary, and the Chelnobelli incident that separates the two stages. Some scholars traced the literature after the 1990s back to BU-BA-BU. The three main characters of Bubabu were Yuri Andrukhovych, Victor Nabrak ( Viktor Neborak, Oleksander Irvanets. There are also many small groups in the same period as Bababu, which are called the Bababu generation. Babab is spliced from three Ukrainian vocabulary, clown (BUFONADA), Balahan, and Burlesk. We can grasp the creative interests of the Bababu according to these three words. Babbu often gathered in coffee shops and apartments to read works or improvises. Their literature completed a late rebellion in Ukrainian history, but its main heritage was language innovation. Some scholars have compared Babab and Baroque literature.
During the long Soviet period, Ukrainian literature was mainly survived under the shadow of the Soviet Union. Its theoretical support comes from Lenin’s speeches of the Twelfth Congress of the Russian Communist Party (cloth) in 1923. “Talking about the superiority of Russian culture and the high -level Russian culture will inevitably defeat backward nations (Ukraine, Azerbaijan, from Azerbaijan,, from Azerbaijan, from Azerbai The cultural arguments of Uzbek, Gilgis, etc.) are nothing more than an attempt to consolidate the rule of the Great Russian nation. “Ukrainian literature Russia, not only that, Ukrainian language is considered a language spoken by the low -class people. Under this structure, Ukraine culture has begun to decline on a large scale, occupying the center that “neither Ukraine nor Russian, but a mix of mixed words called miscellaneous”. In 1985, when answering “Russian Literature and Art” (“Soviet Literature”), when the editor -in -chief of Liu Ning was interviewed, the then Secretary of the Ukrainian Association Council, Gangchaer, said that he “strives to shape the image of my favorite contemporary person, and he is in the heart. Breeding the thoughts I cherish. He is an internationalist and humanitarian. He thinks about human tomorrow, thinking about how to prevent war, how to maintain ecological balance, and how to eradicate the threat of nuclear wars. This is the fate of world fate, human beings, human beings Tomorrow, anxiety, anxiety is widely rooted in people’s hearts, because people strive to get rid of this uneasy factor and enhance the friendship and understanding of people, and the country. “
But during the Soviet Union, the style of “ShistDesiatnyky” was different. “In the 1960s” represented by Lina Kostenko and Vasyl Symonenko, a group of anti -Russian poets and critics. “People in the 1960s” hoped to break through the restrictions on socialism and realism, and restarted modern and ironic belonging to Ukraine. Member Valentyn Moroz, a member of the 1960s, wrote in prison, “The creative essence is rooted in unprecedented and unsurprising things, the latter’s carrier is human. Everyone’s consciousness It contains a certain aspect of all -inclusive and endless existence. It cannot be repeated, and it can only be reflected by specific individuals. We can realize that the more these aspects, the more complete the depiction of the world. This is here: as the point of view of an individual is dying, a possibility is irreversible. At the same time, one million mosaics of the human spirit will no longer shine. “In the 1960s, the” internationalism or Russiaization was in the 1960s. Intersection 》 Ivan DZYUBA as the only compromise in this group.
Ukrainian literature after Chel Nobel was another story.Independence, going to Russia, globalization, the Internet, etc. all participated in the production of literature.In this vast field, research institutes, literature awards, literature festivals, writers’ groups, niche publishing houses, art books, and podcasts have played their role.Here are only the more famous writers: Oksana Zabuzhko, Yurii Andrukhovych, Ivan Malkovych, Ivan Malkovych,SERHIJ dAdan, IHOR Pavlyuk, Vasyl Makhno, ARTEM Chekh, TanjaMaljartschuk), Levkova Anastasia, Andriy Lyubka, Andriy Lyubka, Oleksandr Mykhed, and Andre KurchAndrey Kurkov.
Editor in charge: Zang Jixian
School pair: Luan Meng