How beautiful the pagoda in Beijing is! Foreign photographers have left precious images a hundred years ago
From 1906-1909, with the support of the Royal Foundation of the German Empire, Enders Bershman spans 14 provinces and has tens of thousands of miles. , Leave 8,000 photos, 2,500 sketches, 2,000 pens and 1000 pages of testing records. Later, Bo Schiman published three volumes of “Chinese Architectural Art and Religious Culture” series based on this: “Putuo Mountain”, “Chinese Ancestral Hall”, “Chinese Pagoda”, and “Chinese Architecture and Scenery” and “Chinese Architecture” and so on. Works have left many precious historical video materials for future generations.
“China Pagoda” is the earliest Western system to study the Chinese Pagoda. In 1931, it included 520 plugs and photos, and more than 270,000 words inspection reports. After nearly a century of changes, many pagodas in the book no longer exist, making this book a milestone that cannot be surpassed by future generations.
Jingmingyuan Yufeng Tower
Some cases have shown that people are preferred to build pagodas on isolation mountains and rolling mountains. If they want to mark some places through the pagoda or increase their influence, people generally build two or more pagodas in the same place or more pagoda. Essence Yuquan Mountain is a good example. It is not far from the Summer Palace in the northwest of Beijing. The core building complex in the mountains is a royal house -Jingmingyuan. There are at least four shapes and sizes on the mountains and hillside, but their history is not long, and they are built during the Kangxi and Qianlong periods. Two higher pagodas are markers of the magnificent scenery of the Xishan Mountains and Beijing Plain, and there will be a detailed introduction later. The two short pagodas are not important for the local landscape style. The four pagodas are connected to other buildings. The highest Yufeng Tower is the largest, and the same larger temple is connected. The buildings in the temple are discharged upwards along the hillside, until the peaks are very elegant Yufeng Tower, where we can overlook the intoxicating plain scenery. On one side is Beijing City and the other side is Xishan.
Figure 23 Yufeng Tower in Yuquan Mountain Park, Beijing. Von Westhagen shot.
Figure 31 Four pagodas in Beijing Yuquan Mountain Park. Seen in “The Book of Poen’s Catholicism” (K.B.).
Figure 32 Two pagodas on Yufeng in Yuquan Mountain Park, Beijing. Bystanman shooting.
Figure 168 Yufeng Tower in Jingmingyuan, Beijing. A total of seven floors, 35 meters high, partially decorated with glazed, built in the 18th century. Gegler shot.
Figure 170 Yufeng Tower of Jingmingyuan, Yuquan Mountain, Beijing.
Jingyi Garden Glory Tower
Jingyi Garden is part of Xiangshan, and has been the royal place since ancient times. After the Liaoning State died in 1125, the emperor Yeluchun, the emperor of North Liao, was buried here. After that, the emperor of the Kingdom of Jin Guo established the Summer Palace here, and the ruins still existed today.
Like the glazed tower in the Reheixing Gong Temple, the glazed tower here is also built for the sixth Panchen Panchen Tail in Six in 1780. This tower is exactly the same as the Rehe Gallery Tower. The square has a high base as the bottom. There has been a corridor in the past. Nowadays, the upper tower is equally seven. There are some trivial differences between the two towers. Compared with the Rehe Gili Tower, there are only double -layer bucket arches under the eaves of this tower, not four layers. The border columns of the tower are not embedded, but protruding three -quarters outward. The glazed bricks used in the tower body are wider, so the amount is less, and each side has one piece as a Buddha. Most of the previous corridors were destroyed in 1860. The Lama Temple where the Liuli Tower was located was damaged by the British French forces this year. The unobstructed tower base allows people to better understand its structure. The brick -quality pillar is surrounded by the limestone board, and the carved patterns, Buddha statues and some secondary characters are used to modify the disappeared corridor. Among the previously mentioned Nanjing porcelain tower, the four heavenly kings were displayed on the side wall of the corridor in a two -two way, which may help us better understand this pagoda. The Jingyi Garden Tower replaced the four heavenly kings with the same Buddha statues. In any case, the glazed tower in Nanjing has a clear contrast to these lama towers on the suburbs of Beijing. There are four doors in the base. The third corridor is hidden in it, surrounded by the real tower heart. Most of them also have staircases, which lead to the flat seat below the tower. There is a circle of marble railings around the seat. The two similar towers, two similar towers in Jingyi Garden and Rehe. Even the Lama Temple was built into a large Tibetan temple. The monks in the temple, even the Dalai Lama, mostly used the tower as a place to recite the chanting.
Figure 308 The glazed tower in Jingyi Garden, Royal Garden in Xishan, Beijing. There are bases at the bottom. The tower has a total of seven floors and 30 meters high. It was built in 1780. There is no trace of the bottom corridor at the bottom. See Figure 309; p. 348, Figure 310; p. 349, Figure 312. Bystanman shooting.
Figure 309 The stone carving decoration of the base of the glazed tower of Jingyi Garden — Buddhist symbol next to the door. Bystanman shooting.
Figure 310 The stone carving decoration of the base of the glazed tower of Jingyi Garden — the Buddha statue on the side wall and the decoration. Bystanman shooting.
Figure 312 Part of the plane map and internal corridor of Jingyi Garden Garden Tower in the suburbs of Beijing. See pages 347-348, Figure 308-310. Boxman drawn.
Three -seater glazed tower
Among the two royal gardens and Yuquan Mountain gardens, the two royal gardens and Yushou Mountain, each has a very similar glazed tower. The tower body is three layers, separated by double tower eaves. The top of the tower is the eaves of the triple tower. The top tower eaves on the top is a tip of the tower. Above the top of the tower is a golden and copper tower brake. The glazed tower is standing on the marble base, showing the style of the Qianlong period. All components, tower walls, tower tops and reliefs are made of glazed materials, with diverse colors. The base is blue and white, which is in sharp contrast to the rich and gorgeous color of the glazed. The eaves of the tower are supported by the bucket arched layer. The second and third layers of the tower are equipped with a delicate railings. They are also in the late 18th century style. On each side of the tower body, there are vertical columns and lips. Except for building components, there are small Buddhas in the entire tower body. The large -scale wall brick Buddha’s altar corresponds to the larger, and the Buddha statues sitting are different, surrounded by colorful glazed reliefs. The flat patterns of each tower are not completely consistent. The glazed tower of Yuquan Mountain includes the height of 17 meters in the inner pass, and the tower has an octagonal shape and the front is narrow. All corners of the marble base are upturned. There are only four big Buddhas on each floor, with Buddha statues inside.
The plane of the Liuli Tower of the Yuanmingyuan Garden is from the square, to the octagonal shape of the middle layer, and then to the circular shape of the top layer. This transition has its own inner logic. The distinctive symbolic significance is not only interpreted by the statues of various layers, but also reflected in the specific color. Bu Shili analyzed it in detail. The bottom layer of the square symbolizes the earth and Sumi Mountain, guarding the four heavenly kings in Buddhism. The middle layer with eight Buddha statues is intended to be a heavenly. This is both the birthplace of the bodhisattva before the Buddha and the residence of the future Buddha Maitreya. The round top has five sides, with five Buddha statues. It is said to be the five -party Buddha. Perhaps there is also Puxian Wang Rulai, which represents the sky. In Chinese symbolics, there is a place in Tianyuan. The top of the triple round tower is reminiscent of Beijing’s heavenly altar, which can be proven to be a Buddhist architecture by the ancient Chinese religious architecture. The three -story tower body also symbolizes the three treasures of the Dharma monk. According to Bu Shili, the five basic colors are purple, green, yellow, red, and green pine, mostly corresponding to the color of the five parties -black, green, yellow, red, and white. At the same time, it also involves many concepts related to the “five”. The number “Five” plays a very important role in the Chinese culture and the Buddhist world. There are reasons to believe that the three glazed towers each show a prominent benchmark. In Ernst Ohlmer, the benchmark color of the glazed tower of the Yuanmingyuan is blue, and the other pair of towers are green and yellow. They together constitute a unique type.
With the sense of rhythm formed by tall stratification and tower eaves, the three towers have shown a high level of art in terms of structure and appearance. Liuli technology reached the peak of the 18th century. Friedrich Parkinsky referred to the tower of Yuquan Mountain as a kiln. However, the style itself is plain and traditional, reflecting the characteristics of that era. The tower in the Yuanming Garden is further, and the glass imitation wooden building components, including doors and windows, and carved flowers with vertical columns. This method has high requirements for materials. Such components often appear in small pagodas and pavilions, which are made of copper. The size is slightly larger, so the tower body adds a bit of beauty. In addition, this approach is also in line with the kind and beautiful side of Buddhist teachings. From the perspective of the structure alone, the entire structure can be described as deepening the concept of Tianning Tower. The latter is marked by the main tower layer with symbolic spirit. As the throne of the supreme and relics, there is a tall base below the main tower layer. There is a series of tower eaves above, symbolizing the Buddhist heavens, and eventually turns into the tower brake into the sky. From the perspective of the three glazed tower, the concept of the main tower layer is divided into three, and the eaves are separated from each other, which not only eliminates the symbolic image shown as the overall large tower. Pure buildings. From these late Buddhist cultural relics, we can see that the architectural expression of Buddhist thought has been exhausted, unable to innovate, and thus turned to pure architectural style. People are no longer restrained by religious forms, and they have begun to introduce traditional elements freely, and strive to create a new style of self -containing one. This development process can be observed in many areas of Chinese architectural art, and it is also reflected in some types of pagodas.
Figure 314 The glazed pagoda in the old summer palace Yuanmingyuan in the suburbs of Beijing. Built around 1750. Elmer shot around 1880.
Figure 315 New Summer Palace in the suburbs of Beijing -the glazed tower in Wanshou Mountain. Built around 1750. Professor of Professor Dr. ITO was shot in “Bauwerke Von Peking”.
Figure 313 The glazed tower on Yuquan Mountain in the Royal Garden in the suburbs of Beijing. The tower has a total of three floors, 19 meters high, and was built around 1750. See pages 354-355, Figure 316-318. Bystanman shooting.
Figure 316 The glazed tower on Yuquan Mountain in the Royal Garden in the suburbs of Beijing. Built around 1750, it is located in the courtyard with a fence. The picture shows the steps to the glazed tower. Seeing the Berlin National Culture Museum, shot around 1880.
Figure 317 The flat map of the glazed tower of Yuquan Mountain. The ratio is 1: 200. Boxman drawn.
Figure 318 David tower base, glazed tower body and copper tower brake of the glazed tower of Yuquan Mountain. The ratio is 1: 100. Boxman drawn.
Through the shape of the doors and windows of the tower, people can find the location of the relic letter at a glance. Since the Northern Wei Dynasty, this is an important element in the large Tianning -style pagoda. A series of pagodas, including many small Tianning -style pagodas, have inextricable connections with the larger pagoda, and will also be studied uniformly. Similar to the square Buddhist tomb tower, some newer tombs in the Taoism world also have elements such as virtual door and Saint Temple, but they are all created according to the pure ancient Chinese style. There is also a famous case in modern tomb buildings, namely the tomb of Baiyunguan, Beijing. It shows how people transform the wooden structure of the pavilion into a brick structure. Although people imitate the Buddhist tomb tower and the large Tianning -style pagoda to build this tomb, compared with them, the base of the tomb tower is low, and the main body of the tower is very slender. There is an arched virtual door in the middle of the slender corner, with plaque above. There is a orb on the top of the double tower, which is quite Chinese. The architectural styles of these two religions penetrate each other. In this case, Taoism draws some elements from the Buddhist tomb tower.
There is a set of tattoos and a set of Tianning -style pagodas near Xishan’s Rich Temple. They may be built around 1640. All the pagodas structures are the same. , Composition of dew and orb. The surrounding other Tallinn was usually built in the 18th century, and the Toma Toma and the square Tianning Tomb Tower appeared alternately. Among a cemetery in Tongzhou, east of Beijing, there are many traditional Chinese tombs in the open venue, and these two types of tombs are standing next to it. The King Kong throne tower was built. There is also the same combination in a cemetery near the Japanese altar in eastern Beijing. The tomb tower here is built in the late Qianlong and has an elegant appearance. There is also a case that proves that in Taoism’s tomb culture, polygonal double eaves -type tombs have also appeared. In the cemetery of Baiyunguan, which is close to Beijing West City Wall, in addition to the most elegant monuments, there are also ten octagonal tombs, which are engraved on the front, with a simple Chinese pavilion top. Buddhist thoughts were incorporated into the Taoist world.
Figure 440 A Taoist tomb tower in Tallinn, Baiyun, Beijing. The material is brick and red pottery. The shape is the Tianning -style pagoda, which is about 5 meters high. It is built in modern times. See pages 520, Figure 481. Hallodes shot.
Figure 481 Ten Buddhist tombs in Beijing Baiyun Guan. Built in modern times. See pages 481, Figure 440. Hallodes shot.
Figure 478 Tianning -style pagoda group in the cemetery of Xishan Ringtai Temple. Around 1650, von Westhathagen was shot.
Figure 479 Lama -style pagoda group in the cemetery of Xishan Ringtai Temple. Built around 1650. Von Westhagen shot.
FIG. 448 The stone tower (琬 琬 琬 琬) in the Shiyunju Temple in Zhifang Fangshan. 5.5 meters high, built around 950 AD. Seen in “History of Chinese Buddhism”.
Figure 432 A Buddhist tomb near Beijing. Both the base platform and the outer wall are made of stone. The Buddha’s altar is surrounded by a semicircular dragon wall and built in modern times. Hallodes shot.
Figure 469 The puppet pagoda and Lama Tower in a cemetery in western Beijing. Made of bricks and mud, the base and tower brakes are stone carvings, built in the 19th century. Boxman drawn.
Figure 480 Tianning -style and lama -style tomb tower in Tongzhou Cemetery. Built around 1800. Bystanman shooting.
The pagoda is an isolated and towering landmark. Sometimes they can find a blueprint that can be imitated in the aura, especially in the mountains, and people usually think that the mountains symbolize special miracles. When people are more and more proficient in building pagodas, they gradually find their common to the mountains and mountains. Naturally, people will also regard some strange rocks as pagodas, and even give them special characteristics to some of them. Tower -shaped rocks in Shanyin County, Shaoxingfu, Zhejiang are a typical case. A small mountain temple is sandwiched between strange shapes of rocks. The magical ax of nature makes rocks a very iconic form. People crown the orbs at the top of the rock and define them as a pagoda. There is also a peculiar giant rock in the Xishan Mountains in Beijing, tilting towards the mountain road of Shimen Mountain, and also blocked a part of the road. People treat the rock as the tower body, and the “tower brake” is crowned at the top, and this “tower brake” itself is a small pagoda. It is this Tianning -style pagoda that makes the unforgettable natural landscape here become religious sacred land and special landmark.
Figure 34 The Tianning -style pagoda on the Xishan rock in Beijing. See “Chinese Travelers”.
There are two pagodas standing next to the west of the Forbidden City, the south of the inner city, and the west Chang’an Street. The distance between them is very close, the structure is similar, and only some details are different. A pagoda on the right is slightly larger, with nine floors, and the one on the left is slightly smaller, only seven layers. Their history and sources are worth mentioning. The temple where the pagoda is located has a glorious history, but now it is no longer existing. In the historical books, the two pagodas are: the nine -level pagoda is “The Tower of the Light and Tianpu Zhaozhao Buddhism and the Haiyun Young Kingdom Master”, and the seventh -level pagoda is “the spiritual tower of the Buddhist day of the Buddha and the Great Zen Master”.
These two pagodas are closely related to the wonderful historical stories, and they have obvious characteristics of the Tianning -style pagoda. At that time, I could only glance in a hurry, but I could still see a tall, slender nine -level pagoda behind some low houses. There was a shorter pagoda next to it seemed to be relatively solid, and the tower had seven eaves. The eaves of the two pagodas are different. The eaves of the higher sea cloud tower are relatively flat, which is made of brick blocks from the outside, which is very similar to some square -class towers in Henan and Shaanxi and the Tianning -style pagoda. However, the tower is short, with low bases and strip -like decorations at the bottom. The eaves of the two pagodas are covered by tiles. The top of the tower is tent -shaped, with complicated decoration. The base of the brake rod is a large ball of balls. The top is composed of a quarter -phase wheel, a beautiful flat flame -shaped decoration, and a moon B. There is also a long rod with four small orbs on it.
Figure 388 Gemini Tower in western Beijing. They are all Tianning -style pagodas.
Figure 95 The pagoda of Fengtai, Beijing. A total of seven floors, about 30 meters high. Harold shooting.
Figure 96 Pagoda in Liangxiang County, Zhili. A total of six floors, unknown, may be built in the Song Dynasty. Blessing (fo.) Shooting.
Figure 429 The pagoda of the Yunju Temple of Zhishi Fang. Built in 898 AD. Seen in “History of Chinese Buddhism”.
In order to answer your doubts, the above is what we have organized about Pagoda Tent, hope it can help you.