Wu Pulin: The Duke of Deman Ming Dynasty

Abstract: There is a master, a total of ten Confucius’s people inherited the Duke of the Deman, and the actual work. Although the holes were celebrated, the two bits of Kong Yuguo, but because of the elders, it was not attacked in his death, and his title is later confer posthumously. The court attaches great importance to the Duke of Deman, expresses the dependence of the Taoism, and the meaning of Confucius’ s. The inheritance of the first Dawn Gong in the Ming Dynasty took the story of the Yuan Dynasty, and the children of the subquarters were inherited. From the perspective of ten Demanic Gong, it will not be in the normal state; it attacked the procedures, with the six years (1470) of Ming, there is different. After the end of the generation, after the end of the Deman, the next hit is not necessarily carried out; its attacked time is not necessarily the same period. Such, all that the Jue of Shenggong has uncertainty in many ways.

Northern Song Dynasty is in the second year (1055), the ancestors of the direct collection (1011-1084) played the court, thinking that the court was willing to attack the Confucius’s singer, because “Wen Xuan Gong” is Confucius The number, “The ancestors can not be added”, ask the emperor to release the script, “more fixed”. In March of the same year, Song Renzong squatted, change “Wen Xuan Gong” as “Dali Gong”. This section of “Daly Shenggong” is established. Since then, in addition to the first year of Song Zheyuan (1086) to Huizong Chongning three years (1104), the “Dali Shenggong” title has been extended to the Republic of China for twenty-four years (1935 ), Accumulated for 862 years.

The Dawn is a Confucius, which is particularly respected by the court with the imperative relationship with the imperial court. With the opening of “Kongfu Archives”, related issues are increasingly concerned. And if you want to learn, there is a lot of basic work to do. In the case of the inheritance of Dali, Li Jingming, Meng Jixin has had a card. But their studies have not indicated sources of information, credibility is not enough. In fact, due to historical materials, the problem is limited, and only the historical materials are different, non-tongue, can not peek. Therefore, this paper strives to be exhausted when combing, more than the historical materials, and is important to show the original text as much as possible, and the feature of its attack is appropriately elaborated to make the reader to understand the truth of the facts and authenticity.

First, the birth time of Deman, the matrix and his father’s marriage, the time and life

There is a Ming Dynasty, a total of ten Confucius sorrows have attracted the Duke of the Deman and actually work, and the other Kong Cheng Qing, the two is the long, but because of the early 20, there is no one, and the title is a later generation. . Details are as follows:

(1) Kong Xi Xue

Kong Xi Xue, a penalty line, and the father of Kong Kejian, the fifty-sixth generation of Confucius. At the end of the year of Yuanshun Emperor (1335), the maternal teacher is Mrs. Kong Jian. In the first year of Hongwu (1368) November 7, the court sealed the Duke.诰 曰:

The ancient saints, self-sufficiency, farmland, martial arts, Ming Moon, Ming and Moon, German, Mo. However, every time, there is a good risk. As for Confucius, although it is not allowed to be, the Taoist Taoist Tao is not allowed to teach Wanshi, and for the Emperor. Its grandson can also becomes a famous saying, in extreme. Some people, ask for their intent, respect their mark, cover, so Chongde is also. Since the past generation, the seal of the seal or can’t be rope it, and I am boring. When the beginning of Linyi, visited the attack by the attack, a 56th generation of Sun Kong Xi, the big is Shao. Praise in the ceremony to pay attention to. He (diligent in progress, gravity is Chengde, a few) leader of the Holy Confucian, Yizhong’s Holy Road is used in the world, with the pair of respect, it is not a great! Can make good deeds, attacked the Shenggong.

Hongwu fourteen year (1381) September 20, the disease is finally sleeping, year forty-seven.

(2) Confine

Confene, the word Bo, Kong Xi Xue, Confucius fifty-seventh day. Born in Yuan to Zheng 18 years (1358) Righteousness, the mother is the Mrs. Kong Xi Lady. When Kong Xi learned, Kongne twenty-three years old.

According to the ancient Chinese, Confei is the father’s death for three years. In addition to the date of the service, Zhu Yuanzhang’s wife’s wife and Ma Hua, after the 16th year of Hongwu (1383), and Kongne was in Beijing. After the sacrifice, Zhu Yuanzhang gave the courtesy to Confnes and attacked the San Duke of Hoi Dan. However, “the resignation” is temporarily slow. Original text

Pornin is worried, marks the mourning of the horse. Suddenly, enter. Taizu Hua said: “Confei, the descendant of the real saints.” Give the Puppet, the dungered hall. Drang Qiao Qian Qian Qian, date, gave clothes, and binding. The attack will be hidden, and it is stopped.

吴佩林:明代衍圣公爵位承袭考

In the seventeen years of Hongwu (1384), the funeral period of Kongne, and met in Beijing. Its situation is in the Kong Xi Xue Shen Monu, the original text said:

In the past three years, for Hongwujiao Chun Zhengyue, his sonnene took into the army, and the ceremonies set in Huahai Hall. Asked if the people of the people, the surname is yen. Neon is a kidney, that is, you are too learning. On the following day, I hit the Shenglong, and the words were given.

For this matter, “Ming Dynasty” “(Hongwu 17th Friends)” also has records, and records the 诰. Original text

(Hongwu seventeen years of the first month), Bijin, with Confucius Fifty-seven generations, Sunne, San Na. At the beginning, Neg into the Dynasty, in the Huahai Hall. Asked his cheese surname, no widow, Neon is detailed, kingdom aid, and dunks. To yes, hit the sea.制 诰 曰: “The three emperors of the five emperors, they calmly understand that people are together. To the cornend Stao, so that Wanshi has the basis, its success, so the day is self-cultivated, the temple is endless, the son, the world is there. To serve in the DPRK, the Directive attacked the Juejue, with the sacrifice of the teacher. Stunning! “

But for this chance to see the situation and the specific time of the attack, the records of “Hong Xun’s first year of the gods of the gods” is different:

Outbut, the privy is the first month of the Yangshi. It is time to see, the gods, the talker of the ceremony. So, in February 2, he was hit by hearing, he was heard of the Great Ting, the 100th, and the ceremonies were still sent to Tan.

Different records above, the situation is roughly, after the first month, it is determined to attach the incident, and it is formulated. However, there is no immediate tuy, but “Bu Day” is carried out, and the day is on February 2.

Ming Hui Emperor’s second year (1400) September 16, Confene was sterling. “There are three years in the year. In October 26 this year,” the ancestral forest “.

(3) Confucius

Kong Gong Jian, Zhao Wen, Confe Neon, Confucius 58th Generation Sun. Born in Hongwu 13 years (1380) November, the maternal mother is Mrs. Connene Chen. A large number of historical materials show that Kong Gong Jian’s death in his father’s death, that is, the second year of the text (1400) has attacked the Shenggong. Such as “Holy Merry”, “Hongwu 33 years attacked Shenglong”; “Ming History” said “The Tudu two years”; “里 文 文” “文 文 考” “Confucius Genealogy” and so on contained “Hongwu 33).

Unfortunately, the court has also been awarded to life, and Kong Gongjian has died in his father, that is, the four years of the text (1402), because of the death of the disease, twenty-three years old. “Remaining people, there is no understanding, and in the middle of the year.” Xuande’s first year (1426) February 12, chasing Kong Gongjian Dawn. Original text

制 曰: Confucius Mingshen Tang Dang Wenwu’s way, three five often, illustrate Wanshi. Our country obeys so-in-peace, so the children (and) of the children, so the ritual of Laron. Therefore, he attacked Shenglong Gongjian, and it was a sacred fifty-eighth generation of Sun, and Hedu Yue Yong Yongnian. Bourn, a gift, not ahead. Zteen pushes, chasing the life, with the meaning of Jialin. Jiuyuan is known, and it is awkward.

Episode 12, Xuande

(4) Kong Yan

Kong Yan, the word dynasty, Kong Gongjian, Confucius fifty-nine generation grandchildren, their names and words are the life of Renzong Emperor. Born in the third year of Screen (1401) On March 13, the maternal mother is Kong Gong Jian Mrs. Hu. Because of his father’s death, “Mrs. Mother Education”. Yongle Barn (1410) On the 19/09th, it was sealed as Yanzhi. Making:

Confucius, killing the heavens and the earth, teacher Wanshi, salty. Qin Yong Wang, hit the descendants. This fifty-nine generations, Sun Yanzhao, Yike, the world, Ya is there, and smashing the honor, with Guang Confucianism, can be sealed. Only the Qin Qin, wearing a favorite, remembering the saints, and billing a family. Qin!

Jingtai Six years (1455) On October 21, Kong Yan was swearing, and the year was fifty five years old.

(5) Kong Chengqing (pursuit)

Kong Cheng Qing, the word forever, Kong Yan, the eldest son, the Confucius sixty generations of grandchildren. Born in Yongle 18 years (1420), March 7. The maternal mother is Kong Yan, Mrs. Xia, dying from Jingtai First Year (1450) November 26. Confucius celebrated the death of his father and failed to attack the Deman. In Jingtai Six years (1455), the court was attacked by his hidden hiking. Making:

朕 惟 积 善 在 在,;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Behind the first sanctuary, the ceremony is especially equal. Erfa Chengqing, is a father, the father of the Holy Mong Kong, the father, the sake of good people, Hu Yong Yong? Fortunately, Shanxi. The child is hitting in the Queon, and the Bo is also advisable. Alas! There is a good reputation, there is no honor. Shang Kezhen, Yongguang.

(6) Kong Hongxu

Sixty-one generation of Dawn Mo Kong Hongxu Portrait (Confucius Museum Tibet)

Kong Hongxu, the word is respectful, Kong Chengqing emeo, Kong Yan, Chang Sun, Confucius 61th generation grandchildren. Born in the thirteenth year of orthodox (1448) February 21, the maternal mother is the rod of Mrs. Kong Chengqing. Because of the promotion of Quanlong Hong, the later generation is changed to Kong Hongxu. When Kong Chengqing died, Kong Hongxu was only three years old.

After three years of his grandfather, Ji Jingtai’s six years (1455) December 23, Kong Hongxu should be held in Beijing, attacked the Shenggong, eight years old. The book:

The Tao of the emperor, to be Confucius and demonstrate; This is a common ceremony of the country, and the sincerity since my ancestors. The first teacher Confucius sixty-one generation Sun Kong Hongxu, which is both to make the world, and it is advisable to the world. Special attacked Shenglong. But the virtue can be rope, but learning can be Holy, but only the 毖, the light pet is inherited. Qin!

吴佩林:明代衍圣公爵位承袭考

Five years (1469), Kong Hongxu, “Sitting in the Loss”, was scrapped into a monk. Regarding the reasons for the champion of Kong Hongxu, there are many records, but it is much simple to talk about the status of Kongfu. Such as “Ming History” said “Hongxu is too expensive, and the number of 恃 恃 大学 Li Xian, more than five years, was sentenced to death, the rule, the winner”. The “Ming Xianzong Record” is relatively specific, the original text

(Five years in the Five Years of March), March, March, March, Ji Kong, Hongxu, is guilty, and the revolution. Jiaxu is a Nanjing Academy, and the governor Shandong Dubu Yushangjie is pressed, and it is illegally used sentence, and more than forty people who are raped, and they will kill the innocent people. Sign, the mission will ask, sit and sit. After the first Xuan Sheng, she is wide and the revolution is the people. Still a governor and other officials in the surveillance of the people.

(7) Kong Hongtai (with the identity of the brother)

Kong Hongtai, the word, and, Kong Chengqing, the brother of Kong Hongxu. After Kong Hongxu lost the mourning, the court held a confident man in the governor. After the Haohez Zong Kong Keke, etc. After the death of Han Han, the child is still attacked. Original text

All the Royal Shi Wen, “Kong Zong Chang Kong Kexi and other quotes, Yan Li Sheng Gaozu passed Lu Jian Confucius, Feng Jiu Sun Teng is a Jun Jun, and the world will be inherited by Zong Si. To forty-seven Sun Ruomong is azu temple, there is a crime, with his brother if it hits. If you are a dead, you will still follow the people of Mengzi. Today, Hongxu is both sinful, his brother Hantai is known to know a gift, should be a first Shengzong . “Hongtai to Beijing, the lower situation, Shangshu Yao Wei and other words:” Hongtai should follow the story, let the holy public. After Hongtai, it is still the child. “So, so there is a life .

吴佩林:明代衍圣公爵位承袭考

Kong Hongtai, Jingtai First Year (1450), Ming Chenghua Sixth Years (1470) attacked Shenggong. After hitting, Kong Hongtai got on the table. In view of the privilege of Kong Hongxu, the righteousness of the koi, the ritual, the court decided to let Kong Hongtai after a year after Kozijian in the country. During the time, everyday and important festival, follow-up. Original text

Shengjiao enrollment

Six years, Guozi Yunyi Li Sheng said: “The front assault, the holy public hole, Hongxu lost his childhood, grows close to the group, with the first sentence. Sheng Ming is the first Shengshi,” It is, that is, the brother, Hongtai hits, ether. However, it is unpredictable. The swearing is the same as the drums. Vulnerable, give the house, and take the department of the school. You learned, he was taught to the teacher. 俟 俟 学Class ginseng. “From it.

Seven years (1471) in May (1471), Kong Hongtai was expressed in the country of the country, and the ritual screamed to returning the sacrifice, but it was not allowed to wait for it. Original text

(Seven years in the seven years in the seven years), Haihai, the ceremony Life is still left.

In the past eight years (1472) July 9, Kong Hongtai once again urged him to return to Quasi. The original text is said: “Mandarin Sheng Yan Kong Hiritai is in the style of life. … to Hongtai is sick, and it is a long time to sweep, and it is yes.”

But I don’t know why, late to the eleventh year of the eleventh (1475) November 19, the imperial court “gave hit the Sheng Gong Kong Hongtai.” The Dawn Beiji is two products, and the court will be a rhinoceros. In November of the following year, the Dawn Guifang “aid the story of the story, and gave the jade shaft”, in the collection. On November 14th, the court was given, gave hit the Shenggong Kong Hongtai “jade shaft”. For the original text given, “里志” is contained, and it is said:

曰: 朕 惟 先 之 之 之 自 自 尧 尧 尧 尧 尧 尧 尧……………. 式 式 式 式,. The dictionary of respect, both repeatedly added to their squad; Xi Shu’s grace, it is advisable to move. Er Kong Hongtai, Nai Confucius sixty-one generations of grandchildren, life, and the law, the proprises, Yisheng Xiang, with Yusu Zong, specialty hit the Shenggong. In the play! Only learn to be Holy, but virtue can rope. Go to the heart, 忝 忝.

Hongzhi 16th (1503) May, Yan Ji Kong Hongtai, year 54.

(8) Kong Wen

Sixty-two generations of Shenglong Kong Wenhao Portrait (Confucius Museum Tibet)

Kong Wen Yizhao, the word knows Germany, the number of Confucius sixty-second generation grandchildren. Born in the 18th year of the formation (1482) August 18, the maternal mother is Kong Hongxu. When his uncle, Kong Hongtai died, Kong Wen was twenty-one years old. Hongzhi 16 years (1503) September, Kong Wen Yao entered the. On the sixth day, it seals it as the Shenggong, and the system:

The country is in the nuts, the construction of China, and the only one of the masses is the same. Therefore, Xi Jue is khaitting, Chongde Xian Xian’s class, from the ancestors listed, there is no illegal. Wen Wen, Confucianism Erchakin training, the forever, with the side of the four parties, with the Zong Rong. Fu Zhongxin is in the state, the filial piety can be connected to the god, and the 尔 钦 哉! Learn to know the new, German is still safe, and the Ming Jian of this primrose is also the world.尔 哉, 忝 忝.

After hitting, Kong Wen is praised.

In the 25th year of Jiajing (1546) February 11, Kong Wen was in the heart, and he was sixty-five years old.

(9) Kong Wei dry

Kong Wei dry, the word is supported, the number can be pavilion, Kong Wen Yizhen, Confucius sixty-third generation grandchildren. Born in the fourteen year of Ming Wuzong Zhengde (1519) November, the maternal mother is Kong Wen. In the 25th year of Jiajing (1546), he was ordered to the Beijing-San Dynasty. In the same year, Kong Wei did a named watch in the ganglion.

Jiajing thirty years (1551) August 12, the court gave himself:

: 朕 闻 子 万 万 世 世 万 为 为 为 高 高 高 高 高 高 厚 高 无 高………………………………………………. The slacks of the sacred mullet, but the sixty-three generations of grandchildren, the genitals and the west. The archaeological is a good text, the 忝 忝 忝 胄; 贤 崇 德, 疏 世 之 之.爰 章, use the favorite number. In the play!里 之, 尔 为 嫡,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. However, it is possible to be the light spirit; but it is possible to make an estate; but the gift is not repaired, but it can be a four-party expectation; but the text is not falling, but it can be a hundred generations. Wei Wei, Sism is nothing.

In July, July, July, July, July, and He Hao went to Beijing to celebrate He Wanshou. No, he did not afford to celebrate, the condition is aggravated, the Emperor Shizong sent a doctor Xu Wei. At the eighth day of August, you will give birth to the third year. Funeral ancestor tomb.

(10) Kong Shangxian

Sixty-four generations of Shengmu Kong Shangyun Portrait (Confucius Museum Tibet)

Kong Shangxian, the word, the number Born in Jiajing 23rd (1544) On the second day of July, the maternal mother is Zhang Mrs, Mrs. Kong. Jiajing 35 years (1556) In the same year, Kong Shangxian was hitting a gammon on the list.

Due to Kong Shangyun, Shandong governments were loyal to loyalty: “Yes as Hongxuo, the industry.” Jiajing 38 years (1559) September 30, the court officially sealed Shangxiang as Yan Yan, Shizong affair. Making:

My country is inviting, and the way of Confucius is a follow-up. Yue from the ancestor, to arrest, respect, the passion, and you will preriminate the future, and Shao Feng is also sent to the endless newspaper. Confucius sixty-four generations of Sun attacked San Ji Kong Yuxian, accommodating Ming Ming, early supporting “poetry” “ritual” pass; adherence, no god.眷 国 典, should be there. It is the life of Tin, thinking that Fu Chongde, 乃 乃 率 率 率 乎;;;;; 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 典 光 光 光 光 光 光 光 光 光 光 光 光It is still proud of the Zhen Zexian, and the ancestor is proud. Qin!

On November 24, July, Kong Shangxian gave birth to the first year of 198. There are two sons, Kong Zi Gui, both in the death of the father, there is no peace.

(11) Kong Yuko (recovery)

Kong Yuko, the words, the number, Kong Shangxian, the eldest son, Confucius 65th generation grandchildren. Born in Longqing Five Years (1571), died in Wanli forty-seven years (1619). Due to the death of the father, he did not attract. The later generations are the emperor of the emperor, change “” is “derivative”.

Tianqi five years (1625) March, Qi Zong visited the Temple, Kong Zong plant should be accompanying, and the brother is in the middle of the big, there is no joy, not in the morning, and please also give a good fortune. ” I got the emperor to allow, so I poured the Duke of Kong Yaoyun. Making:

The Duke is sealed, and the son must log in the classics; the fairy wind is far away, and the Sheng Zong Yi Yao Fu is Qian Guang. Although the rhyme is born, the golden sound is self-vibrated. Well, Dai Tong. Erfa, is the brother of the sanctuary, tranquilly, and the end temperature is jailed.禔 禔 慎, 蜚 蜚 声 华; 克 孚 诚, 彝 彝 于 族 族. The model is evident, and it will be the first; Should be sealed in the book, and Yiyi is in the spring. Shao Yinyou is like Xian Xian, Vi Zong has a hit; the geese of the Yukun is endless. Ze Ron is Deman. Qiqan test is in the row of row, Youjia Festival; return to Yunqi in the river Han, Ziyou Longevity.

(12) Kong Yuzheng

Sixty-five generations of Delicate male pores

Kong Huangzhi, the word, the number, the sixty-fifth generation of Confucius, was born in Wanli 201 (1592) November 14. In the future, it is the emperor to avoid the emperor, change “” as “derivative”, and record “shade” “allowed” “governing”. Kong Shangxian was implanted from the eldest son of the youngendan, and as a scorpion.

For the attack time of Kong Zhuzhi, there is a Tianqi First Year (1621), two years (1622), six years (1626).

吴佩林:明代衍圣公爵位承袭考

1. Tianshi said in the first year of the day

Dao Guang three years (1823), Kong Zhao stored “Kong’s big spectrum” contained: “Tianqi Yuan Yun Yan”. This is also incorporated herein by reference. .

“文 文 文” contains: “Tianqi first year, sixty-four generations public in Beijing Jingshi, sleep, give the first time. The two sons are not ordinary, the big must not be inevitable, and the public is, and it is a child. It is the blessing. “

2. Tianshi two years

“Holy Merry” contains: “植, 字 甲 甲, Shang Xian, Tianqi two years attacked”.

Qianlong “Zhangzhou Guanzhi” contains: “Shangxian is behind the 嫡 嫡 枝 植. 系 系 经 经 经 经 经 经… 系 系 系 经 经 经 经 经 经 经 经 经 经 系 系 系

3. Tianshi said six years

“Book” contains: “The sixty-fifth generation of allowance, the word”, Tianqi six years (1626) attacked. After the national change, 薨. “

In contrast, the Tianqi two years (1622) said more reliable. This is because: One is the second year of the day, and Kong Yu is planted to the court of the court or is in the identity of the “Sense of 5”; the second is that Kong Zhen is implanted into the Xie Table of the Gaze. The specific time is recorded. The original text said: “Confucius sixy-five generations of grandson The possibility of fake or misconduct is nearly.

吴佩林:明代衍圣公爵位承袭考

Tianqi two years of attacked Shengzhang Kong Zhuangzhang, and Li Yixian, three years, March, Kong Shangxian. Tianqi seated sixty-five generations of Sun Yan Sheng Kong Kong in the second year of February five years. Making:

Jinghuang’s teaching, holy 绪 千 秋; 盟 府 章, public compliance. Take the sky, Judi Yue Lang, Mo, and the number of people calendered, and the Wei Dynasty is anxious. Don’t prize the world, will you send people?遹涣 遹涣 纶, 辉. San Gongzheng, inherited, Hao Ze, Li Jue. “Poetry” “Li” old heard, the training of his father and brother; Zhi Shi is different, quite a blue. Out of Yunyun in Xiuxu Chonggang, Ning Yu Run in the water; Ziquan originated from Qinghe Ruiyue, and Wan Yulin is in court. Wing Deguides, the river, the river, the autumn Yang; Yangyangfing, the wind of life. Really Chaoye, the immortal of morality. The number of people in Huiz chapter, the prize, and the table is Confucianism, Qi Xing. Zeng Belle is Deman. Yu play! Jin Sheng Yuzhen, the Yigan Bai Wang, Ding Food Bellming, the brilliant thousand. There is someone who has been passing through the world. Non-tree, it is still very expensive. The other square people live the original temple, seeing the Confucian Palace, the bridge girl, the water of the water, the binding is asked in Ni Mountain. The article is the world, and the 簠簋 簠簋 卿. One of the people since the nation, and the leaves will be honest. The priest is a lightweight, and the road is closed. The job is capital, the holy family is there. Only the Chongxuo of the Grande, Yidery. Learn to have a master, good people will be good. But Qin Wei, is a safe. Such as 綍 綍 纶, add careful.

Shunzhi four years (1647) Winter December 15, with the familiar at home, year five.

Second, other issues related to the attack

In summary and combined with relevant historical materials, the following discussions are discussed below. Due to the completion of the two, Kong Yumo, the following, the following, the following contest is only for ten in substantial attackers.

(1) The first marked spirit of the Ming Dynasty is the end of the end, and its children will follow the head of the long-term success.

For the attacker of Yan Yan, “Mingshi” is huddle, and the goggles will hit two levels. Therefore, there is a difference in the first generation of the first Deman, the attack, and its descendants.

1. The first Shenglong hind

吴佩林:明代衍圣公爵位承袭考

The first Dawn Mi Kong Xi (56th) was attacked in Hongwu First Year (1368), his father Kong Jian still in the world, until Hongwu three years (1371) talented March 28 Since Macon has not died yet, why is it not directly appointed? It turned out to be Yuan Shun Emperor until the fifteen years (1355) October, Yuan Ting called Kong Kejian as the same known to Taoi etiquette, with his son to learn from Shenglong. Zhu Yuanzhang along the Ming Dynasty is the practice of Yuan Dynasty. Zhu Yuanzhang did not hear Jacques, and may also be related to the attitude of Zhu Yuanzhang. In the War of Yuan Dynasty and the Red Scarf, Kong Jian stood at the forefront of the Yuan Ting, and it was a confrontation of Zhu Yuanzhang. After Zhu Yuanzhang, Zhu Yuanzhang said that after the emperor, Kong Kejian still called the disease, and the move caused Zhu Yuanzhang’s dissatisfaction.

About the attack of the first Dawn, Kong Xi Xue, the first Dynasty, “Mingshi” stipulates: “The Justice of the Berb is checked, and the argument, defense, Minglun sequence, with Du Zheng,” also It is. “That is to say, the court should check its paragraph to ensure that the long inherit is inherited. The matter was mentioned in the 19th year of Zhengde (1509), the court gave the Dawn, the court gave the Dawn Monk, and the original article said: “I am the Tao, the emperor Chongru ancestors, the beginning of the place, the first life Visiting the big part of the United States attacked Shenglong. “

Regarding the attacker of Gong Hou Bo, according to the “Ming Segendons”, Jiajing 34 years (1555) The question: the two Beijing five military regulations, each committee, the official, need to submit a sign, will The uncle’s ancestral fence is coming, and the martial arts and grandchildren under the people, the mother of the attack, the researcher, etc. Send a branch. Thurs out every five years later. Starting from Jiajing for 20 years (1541) Offenders, paraly restriction. Whether the attacker of Kong Xi learned in this way, after death, it is died, and the author did not find the relevant record. However, from the court to the practitioners of the Dawn Ming Guan, playing funeral is established, and it is suitable for later attackers.

2. Children hits

About the child’s attacker, “Mingshi” contains: “Anyone’s grandchildren is attacked. Hongwu twenty-sixth: Sun Cheng hit; if there is no scorpion, he is inheriting; if there is no son and grandchildren, the president of the long is a child. Do not bounce … Kong Shi attacks the Shenggong. “Ming Dynasty as follows:

(1) “Death is killed, and must be inherited with a long man.” Confene (57th generation), Kong Gongjian (58 generation), Kong Yanzi (59 generation), Kong Wei dry (63) Old.

(2) “If the male accident, the grandchildren inheritance” Confucius (60 generations) first died in his father Kong, and he was attacked by his grandfather, Kong Yan (59). After this situation, the court usually grants the deceased in the form of a chart, to make a dishtoece, and express the meaning of the court “”.

(3) “If there is no sorrowful grandson, he will hit the child.” This is the case. Kong Shangxian (64th generation) two sons were eager to say, so there is no “long male underheritance”. However, Kong Shangxian planted the eldest son of the younger brothers and gave yourself, and Kong Yuzu is in the heart of Kong Wei. Therefore, the identity of the “嫡 嫡 嫡 嫡 嫡 亲” is inherited, seeing Figure 1 for details.

(4) “If there is no son and grandchildren, the president of the president is inherited.” After the sixty-first generation of the Confucius The transition of the identity of the “嫡 嫡” in Hoi, on behalf of the assault. After Kong Hongtai passed the world, he returned to the “long male inheritance”. And Mrs. Kong Hongxu, Li, Li, followed by B & B, Yuan’s, and no children. In this way, the children and grandchildren, and the children and grandchildren have no coming. Kong Hongxui is born in Jiang, and the eldest son is Kong Wen (62). Kong Wen is inheriting the DawBrops of the Demonstration with the Identity of “Miki”.

(2) If you don’t work, please be inherited.

The Dingfang System of the Ming Dynasty stipulates that the civilian bureaucrats have suffered their parents, they must leave their own mourning (not counted) twenty-seven months. After the death of Kong Xi, his Zikne refer to this case for three years, and then attacked. Also, Kong Hongxu, is the title of his grandfather, Kong Yan (59th), referring to “Big Ming Dynasty • House Order • Sun Ding Jun” “It stipulates that when the mourning is three years. And Kong Mongcheng, Kong Wei, Kong Shangxian three after his father died soon. Here, the head of the Ministry of Commissioner Guo Yuchen (1524-1580) mentioned the previous Deman, “% of the mourning of parents, no punness, please inherit, and military). Although Guo Yizhen is in the actual situation, such as Confei is a three-year behind, but it is also true.

吴佩林:明代衍圣公爵位承袭考

In the first year of Long Qing (1567), Guo Yuchen’s mid-to-court, played the Sheng Sheng Mustang for three years, and the world was in the world. Supressive:

Lu is the country of the world, and the Confucius is the world. Today, the country’s special world is a Deman, the rank is in a person, after the sacred person, for the people’s ear! Don’t make it a three-year system, why? Mupress obeys the worry, as a sericenter.

Guo Yuchen means that the soldiers don’t work, it is the maintenance needs, the situation is special, and the Shenggong has been a saints, when the Wenchen, hold the three years. In this contest, I will let the Ting Chen have, and the Ministry believes that “Shenglong or the mourning, it is still the fight. It is attacked, the company is played, so that it protects the inscription, waiting for the inheritance Dedicated to the congratulations. “Qunchen also believes that” Xu Zhao Wenchen’s finalization “. Longqing four years (1571) The question “Cooked” is attacked. That is to say, Dawn is not meant to do anything else, and the government should take tube. The same is true, and he is in the second year of Tianqi (1622), that is, the next year after Kong Shangxian has passed the year, managing the affairs, until the end of Ding, the court will give you life.

The reason why she did not wait until the end of the three years, that is, “I don’t do it, I will be inherited”, and the characteristics of the running of the Dawn Government. General civilian officials are worried, there are still other people, and the Daman Shenggong has only one person, as the main, Kongfu Focus, Annual example, the tribute watchma, celebrate the ceremony, the ancestral temples, etc. . The job is the same, Tianqi two years (1622) May hole 胤 就 就 就 就 即 即 即 即 即 即 者 即 即 者 者 即 者 即 即 即 即 即 即 重 重 重 重 重 重 为 重 为 重 为 为 重 重 重Old rules. “

(3) Other issues on attacked procedures

1. The “attack” time and “诰 诰” time is not necessarily synchronized

Attach time is the time of DLO, the time, the time, refers to the time of the imperial court. After the common sense, the court will immediately defend the text, but these two times often do not sync. Ten, Kong Xi, Kong Na, Kong Yan, Kong Hongxu, Kong Wen Wen Wu; no synchronous, the same, Kong Gongjian, Kong Hongtai, Kong Yu, Kong Shangxian, Kong Yuzhi. Strictly speaking, only when the court “诰 诰”, the identity of Daman has legal effect. Therefore, before the court promulgated, this “attacked” only has the nature of “name”, although the Ming and Qing Dynasties are called “attack”.

The reason is not synchronized, mainly the following reason: First, the chasing after death, such as Kong publication; second, it is only a three-year end, such as Kong Shangxian, Kong Zhuangzhi, and Kong Hongtai, Kong Wei dry is in the five years After the given life; the third is to study in Guozijian for a while, such as the court in order to prevent Kong Hongtai’s brother Hongxu’s back dust, and stipulates that “Dawn is the brancher in the supervisory book”. ” As mentioned earlier, Kong Hongtai is more than one year in Guozijian, until the 2008 years (1472), will be returned. Kong Hongtai, Kong Wei did not be seated after five years, in addition to the three-year council, the reasons of the delay may also be related to the supervision of reading.

2. After the end of the Deman, the next hit is not necessarily carried out.

According to the common sense, after the last Demanic Gong, the attacker of the Dawn Gong will enter the agenda, but the fact is not the case. Due to the crucial, Confa was born three years later. Kong Yan, jeopardized after eight years of death. how so? Limited to historical materials, it is difficult to adopt. The author speculates that there may be two: First, Kong Yanzi is only two years old when his father Kong is dying, age is too small. Second, the first year of Yongle, the court was busy to consolidate the new regime, and arrived in Yongle eight years (1410), Yongle Emperor wins, in Beijing, returned to Nanjing in October. After returning to Beijing, he was awarded the gum of public life in this year.

3. After the Ji Hongtai, you need to praise

From now on, the literature in the current store, from Ming Chenghua (1470) Kong Hongtai, including its subsequent five-year-old, averaged Xie table after the attack. In this six, “Attack” time and “诰 诰”, Kong Hongtai, Kong Wei, Kong Shangxian, and Kong Yuzheng, and the name of our table occurred before the court gave birth.

4. Confucius

In accordance with the Sixth Years of the Arbitrary Category (1470), Kong Hongtai passed the death, when Ho Hong Xu’s eldest son Kong Wen said. The relay procedure has more detailed records in “Ming Decumben”, very precious. The original text is as follows:

(Hongzhi 16th Year June, the wutter), Shandong, Shandong, Shandong, Shandong, Shandong: “Dawn, Kong Hongtai, with his brother, Lao Xi, the revolutionary tips, today, the sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred “Because of its native and divisions, the official documents, the official documents, please. The resolution of the Ministry is detailed. If the Ministry of Piente, please play like a source. From it, the gift will take us to take the horse to Beijing.

As can be seen, the procedure is roughly the case: Kong’s clan, Qufu County, Yanzhou Government, Shandong Chengxuan Decoration, the government, Shandong Du Yushang Xu Yuan is post-traced → After the court received, the part of the division verified the truth According to the tring to report → The Ministry of the Ministry, please ask the court to agree to Xu Yuan’s play → the court agreed, think that “Chong Rong Da, Mo Xian’s Tiantian,” → 行 → → → 例 例 例 例 例 例 例 例 例 例 例. “Mingshi” contains: “After Dawn, he listened to his own grandson to go to Beijing.” An example of Kong Wen is also explained that this provision is implemented in practice.

5. Aggressing procedure

Tianqi 2nd (1622) On May 21, Kong Yu was planted in the court, and asked the emperor to “discharging the rules of the country, covering the Duke of the pretration.” After receiving the Holy Mustic of the Emperor, in view of the special circumstances of the Ji Zizi, “he hessens”, the success of Shandong Province is in accordance with the verification. After the Shandong Province found, it was considered that the people inherited today were Zhuangzheng. Then, the situation “Sedoning” to the Ministry of Tailings, the Ministry of Radi “did not dare to be good”, please decide the emperor. Finally, Feng Shengtui, Kong Yuzheng hit the Shenglong.

Third, conclusion

Limited to historical materials, the relevant issues of this field cannot be fully launched. This article only has the above research, and it is concluded that the following conclusions:

(1) Based on the historical time of the history of the Ming Dynasty, the birth of the Ming Deman, the featuring time, the time, the time of the maternal relationship, the marriage relationship with his father, and the conclusions are relatively reliable. And revealed related results, there is more wrong leaks. Such as the “Inheritance System of Confucius” in Xing Tie “Ming and Qing Dynasties” The seal time of the planted is misrecosted as “Jingtai First Year” “Five Years” “Tianqi First Year”; Luo Chengyu “Confucius” in Chinese history ” Hong Xiyuan “. Chen Zhan, the Confucius Museum, is set to “Tianqi First Year”. Not only that, these studies have not noticed the phenomenon of “attacking” and “诰 诰” time. Another example is the attack of Yan Zhan, Yuan Zhaochun has a book of “Legal historical value of Kongfu archives”, and believes that Confucius fifty-sixth generation Sun Kong Xue Xue is attacked by “father’s death”. And in fact, the father of Kong Xi learned to learn is still healthy. At the same time, the author also found that some historical materials may have problems. Such as Qufucheng, “Hongwu fourteen, Kong Xi Xue Xue Xuexiao” record: “Hongwu’s fourteenth year October 20th, Xuan Sheng fifty-seven generations Sun Hao Feng Shenggong.” That is, Confene is in the next after his father The moon was blocked, and this is contradictory with the above 1984 (1384). In the case, it is possible that the monument Songne is misunderstood (it is important to think that his father has passed through the year), or may be caused by the original monument, the transcriptor misconscious. Another example is that Kong Hongtai’s sea seal time, Ming Dynasty Chen Yizhi “Yu Li”, “Sepament December 22, December 22, China, is not very appropriate.” According to the two historical materials of the aforementioned “Ming Dynasty”, “December 22, December 22” “” It is probably the time that the Dawn Government received the jade shaft, because before, the court has given Kong Hongtai Have you lived and gave a rhinoceros. “里 志” has misleaded the later researchers, and most of the results will be used as the attack time of Kong Hongtai for 12 years.

(II) The court has expressed the depends on the Taoism of Deman, and the meaning of Confucius’ s. Before the leader, “there is a country, seek its intent, respect the mark, cover so Chongde report” “爰行,,” “” “” “” ” The children of the children, so the ritual of the Lu Chongxiu “” After the first Sheng, the ceremony is especially good to add “” Chongdexian Xian Xian, since the ancestral List, there is no “” ” The worship of the enemies, the Chongxue of Yide, etc., and the contents have expressed this meaning.

(3) The basic procedure of Dawn hosak can be divided into two phases. In the first stage, the procedures were approximately three steps in the period: the procedures were approximately three steps: report to the courtesy → the river, the Ministry of the Ministry of the Ministry, reported to the emperor approval → At the same time, he should go to Beijing. In the second stage, the procedure is approximately five steps: the procedures are roughly five steps: the report is inherited → the river, the Ministry of the Ministry, and the Ministry of Ren, the emperor is reported to ratify → the children will go to Beijing. Awarded the life.

During the different stages, there is also different factors due to different events. For example, before Long Qing four years (1571), Yan Shenggong can immediately reported his own news during the service, and afterwards, it will change the “in the official generation”. As another example, in the case of some special circumstances such as the odds, the brothers and other special circumstances, the procedure is often more complicated, from the Confirie people, counties, the province to the court, and it may be involved in the court, which is in front of it. Detailed description, this will not be described.

(4) Terminal generation, the attack of Demanic Gong is uncertain in many ways. For the Junan’s hidden, despite some provisions, there is still no customization, randomness and variability in many aspects. Its main performance is: After the last Deman is separated from the world, sometimes it is replenished, sometimes the position vacancy is up to seventeen years; sometimes the completion is coming again, sometimes it is first attacked; some are in the work, there is At the end of the building, it will be sealed after a few years after the completion. These uncertainties have given some negative impact on the performance of Daman Gong and the operation of the Dawn Government. The details will be discussed.

Author: Wu Pei Lin, Qufu Normal University Historical and Cultural College and Professor, Ph.D.

Original: “Confucius Research” 2021 6th

School: Hua Jingjing, Lu Qinglan

Edit: Kong Yong

Author: ArticleManager