With the opening of the Shenyang Museum on the winter solstice on December 21, what kind of problems in China’s earliest Phoenix have once again become the focus of public opinion.
It is understood that the insiders introduced that the sunbird wood carvings unearthed 7200 years ago will have the opportunity to meet the audience, but the exhibition time does not exceed 10 days.
Is this precious cultural relic the earliest phoenix in China? What are the magical places? Why does this cultural relic define the past and future of Shenyang?
All of this should start with a small shovel from Yu Chongyuan, 35.
Waiting for more than 7,000 years, the sun and bird clouds see the day
One evening in the autumn of 1978, in the setting sun, the staff discovered by the Shenyang Xinle site were working on the day of the end.
When cleaning up the dust in the northwest corner of the house, archaeological player Yu Chongyuan found carbides with different textures from carbonized wood structures.
Because of fear of destroying cultural relics, Yu Chongyuan removed this object with the soil, fixed plaster, and then carefully brought back to the room.
He first decomposed carbides and soil with alcohol, and after cleaning up all the soil, he found that this strange cultural relic was a wooden artwork. The wood part has been carbonized and black, which is divided into three sections.
After detailed recovery, the cultural relics showed the whole picture-38.5 cm in length, 4.8 cm wide, and 1 cm thick.
Looking at the appearance, it looks like a bird, lifelike, and flutter. It consists of 5 parts of the mouth, head, body, tail, and handle.
In addition to the long handle, the whole body is carved with both sides, the shade is basically the same, the whole body design is pattern, the head is decorated with vortex patterns, the body is decorated with diamond -shaped scales, the tail is decorated with a bird’s feet.
Experts analyze that this cultural relic is not carved with rare wood, and it may have been rotten in the long river. However, because of a big fire, it was carbonized, and was saved by blessings.
According to carbon 14, the age of this cultural relic was 7245 ± 165 years. It is roughly in the era of new stone artifacts of the primitive society, and it is 3,000 years earlier than the age of the three emperors and five emperors in ancient Chinese legends.
(Figure 1 woodcarving unearthed from Xinle site)
Precious woodcarving, primitive totem worship
Xinle Wood Carving Bird is by far the earliest woodcarving in China. Although it has a long time, every texture on it is clearly visible. It is simple and beautiful, and it is designated as a national first -class cultural relic.
Because of the woodcarvings like fish -like birds, people kindly call it “Sunbird”.
When talking about this woodcarving product, Mr. Li Yangsong, a professor at Peking University, gave a high degree of evaluation that “the sculpture list is based on the level of craftsmanship, which can be said to be a masterpiece of the ancient culture of the Liaohe River in my country at that time.”
The woodcarvings are carved with triangular patterns, vortex patterns, ribbon patterns, diamond patterns, grid patterns, sparse vertical stripes, and local carved (transparent) carvings appear. The upper part is flat and the lower part is cylindrical.
Faced with such exquisite artworks, experts said that the Neollevanca birds are extremely rare in the archeology of Neolithic in my country, which can be said to be the only treasure.
Is Xinle woodcarving a Phoenix?
There is a cloud in the Book of Songs: “Phoenix is flying, and its feathers are also gathered.” From ancient times to the present, Phoenix has been regarded by the Chinese nation as auspicious existence. Will the new music wood carving birds be the phoenix that the ancestors regarded as the gods?
Some archeological researchers believe that woodcarving birds are the image of Dapeng Bird, and Pengbird is a phoenix, that is, phoenix.
The primitive ancestors of Xinle are carved into a big Pengbird image with a highly summarized pattern.
If the two eyes are only used in two circles of vortex lines, the two eyes are opened, and the eyes are observed, and the big mouth only uses three -line intersecting to sketch the curved triangle; The relatively oblique rhombus pattern really reappears the image of a big Pengbird to reproduce people’s eyes.
Some experts quoted the myth story in “Zhuangzi · Xiaoyaoyou” to explain: “Being in the north is fish, its name is 鲲. I do n’t know the thousands of miles. Flying, the wings are like the clouds of the sky. It is a bird, and the shipping will migrate to the south. “
Peng’s posture is larger than ordinary birds, flying like wind, very mighty. And quoting the “Said” pointed out that Peng is the alias of Phoenix, “Fengfei and Birds with Birds”, thus treating the birds as auspicious birds and worship of the gods.
The image of the woodcarving bird unearthed from the Xinle site is consistent with the “phoenix” recorded by the literature.
What does the woodcarving do?
Some archaeological scholars believe that woodcarving should be the item often used by prehistoric humans -buns.
This wooden cricket used by Xinle is likely to be the emblem of the original totem. It is the most primitive head of the female leader in the Chinese maternal society.
(Figure 3 Bird -shaped buns use a schematic diagram)
It should also be the ancestor of the heads and flowers worn by the concubines of ancient Chinese emperors, or the earliest phoenix in Chinese history.
(Figure 4 Qingzhu Phoenix Born in Shenyang Palace Museum)
Sunbird, the history and future connecting Shenyang
The past life of Xinle Phoenix woodcarving has been told. Where is the story of this life of the Phoenix woodcarving?
Everyone in Xinle seven thousand years ago had disappeared, and they became dirt and became the land that supported us, but they never stayed away from us because the blood created by their time was still in your body. Running.
From the sunbird to the Phoenix buns and then to the Phoenix Tower of the Forbidden City of Shenyang, many representative cultural relics in Shenyang are telling the history of human civilization since 110,000 years in Shenyang, the long inheritance of the stars of the Chinese civilization, and the tongue with the Yangtze River and the Yellow River. The bright Liaohe civilization.
(Figure 5 Phoenix Tower, Shenyang Forbidden City)
The Phoenix woodcarving that our ancestors left us, which indicates the direction when we come.
When we look back, we can see the direction of our home; when we move forward, it reminds us who we are and who we are to be.
Today, let’s walk into the Shenyang Museum, pass through the long -term history, go to the source of history, go to the source of the civilization of Shenyang City, and explore the world of water and fire.
Here, look back at the journey of the ancestors, the creation, the emotions, and the bones.
More can let us experience what the Shenyang people have contributed to Chinese culture. And today, what should we leave for the descendants of later generations?
Let us look forward to it together that this ancient and young city, such as Phoenix Nirvana, create glory.
(Author: Yan Mengyuan, Department of Journalism of the School of Culture and Law, Northeast University. Good at photography, his works include “Lonely Travelers”, “Northeastern University 163 -ton Graduation”, etc.)
Source: China Daily.com