Stop the development of cotton? Is the promulgation of the ban limited cotton cloth to ordinary people’s wardrobe?
Evidence shows that these laws do not work in preventing consumers from wearing prohibited fabrics. In France, the ban in 1686 had to reiterate on a regular basis in the early 18th century that dozens of “ARRET” (judgment) reflected the law that the law was generally ignored. Although these judgments clearly stated that all goods from India and China are prohibited at home or in public (there must be no exceptions, even the Palace of Versailles), but the imported white cotton cloth and printing cloth are still popular.
There is a 1705 judgment mentioned that “many people are still wearing these (illegal) fabrics from India or the Netherlands or the country, or the clothes made of wool fabrics;
Similarly, tailors and decorative workers also use these fabrics to sew clothes and decorations, because they believe that as long as they work as high status, they will not be punished by these decree. “
According to the estimation of 1701, the cotton sold in France is worth 12 million miles (about 500,000 pounds).
Essence In the United Kingdom, Flute -At this moment, writing the article to defend the interests of wool merchants -complained, the ban does not work, “imported from the Dutch” and “in India or the Dutch print” The ban is ignored.
▲ French East India Company
The government has done its best to control smuggling. In France, a large number of Asian textiles were imported to Loron illegally and sold out before entering the library.
The French government promulgated a decree, requiring all Asian textiles that French Eastern India companies must use special signs (called “lead seals”) for identification.
Essence There is almost no evidence that people who wear prohibited fabrics will be fined or prosecuted in the UK. Occasionally, violent incidents occur. For example, the angry masses will attack women in Indian cotton clothes, but they are limited to the period when the ban in 1721 has just passed.
In France, some people were fined, but it seems that the law is only adhered to. Just like the wife of a member of the Rennes Parliament encountered such a situation embarrassingly, people were surprised to see her “at eleven o’clock in the city wall, wearing Indian cotton clothes.” In Paris, the police filed three legal lawsuits against women in Indian cotton clothing in 1721. In 1727, it was 11, and in 1737 increased to 63.
They were found to wear jackets, skirts or home clothes as illegal cotton. These cotton cloths are not just from India and Li Fante, and some are printed and dye in cities such as Marseille. These cities have the legal status of semi -autonomy, so the laws of 1686 give their franchise. In the first decades of the 18th century, the implementation of these laws was particularly weak.
▲ Indian cotton clothing
In December 1715, a factory inspection report in Bayonne City, a major western province in Billy, said, “All the prohibited goods found on the cargo ship of the East India company are undoubtedly sold to France”, and there are a large number of “British (cotton) cargo that is very unfavorable to French products”. He listed men and women wearing banned clothes: 4 in July, 7 in August, 7 in September, and 3 in the next two months.
They were found to be made of printed jackets and coats, which were made of cotton in Indian cotton cloth, but also made in cotton in France’s Agen and Bergerac. The civil servant of Bayoa was anxious to show his enthusiasm, with a view to a part of the fine, and other colleagues felt very regrettable because they did not stop the authority to stop
People with high status lead to low status and not comply with discipline and law.
The inspection also seized the goods in the workshop and the craftsman’s house. They not only discovered the prohibited goods in these places, but also found the tools, dyes and media dyes for printing and dyeing. However, this is an endless battle, those French cities with franchisees, or cotton -produced by adjacent Switzerland, it is easy to find customers in France.
Cotton can still be bought, and it seems that it has not been affected by the ban. If the wool and silk manufacturer want to stop the consumer in the hope of a paper ban, then they are very wrong.
The prohibition of Indian cotton has created the need to bypass the law to provide similar textiles. This intended to be a measure to destroy the demand for cotton cloth, but the result became one of the key factors of Indian cotton -produced Indian cotton cloth produced by European printed hemps and blended cotton cloths produced in Europe.
▲ The tool for dyeing cloth
Imported replacement: From consumption to the end of the 17th century to the beginning of the 18th century, Indian cotton textiles have gradually become the consumption habits of Europeans. One of the response to this is to resist tariffs on such new products and the ban on promulgation. Another response is to persuade consumers to buy “substitutes”, which is the imitation product of Asian cotton -produced in Europe.
However, why do European textile manufacturers want to use their Indian counterparts as competitors and compete in a field of little knowledge and experience? Mark Sai Berg believes that from the end of the 17th century to the first decades of the 18th century, the product itself stimulated the demand with its visual and touch attributes, and the demand in turn triggered the imitation products produced by Europe to replace them. try.
This process expands to textiles, because too many products that were imported from Asia have eventually achieved domestic production, such as porcelain, lacquerware and silk. Such products are partially transformed to adapt to the tastes of Europeans and consumer expectations.
In Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, replacing imported products with local products is a concept of forming, and is considered a flexible response measure to change consumer preferences. James I (James I) supported the trying mulberry tree in the UK. However, the goal of the development of a large number of raw silk and silk fabric imports from the development of the country’s silk industry has not achieved success.
The same is true of brocade and glass. The British government tries to promote production by encouraging Frandez and Venice’s technical craftsman immigrants in these fields. Therefore, the purpose of businessism is not only to refuse foreign products, but also to encourage domestic products to replace them.
▲ Learning mulberry cultivation technology
These are policies formulated by France, the United Kingdom, and continental Europe through the national support of production, protection of property rights, granting special rights, and material reward production innovation. They have greatly inspired product innovation, professional technology acquisition and development, product innovation and transformation. By the late 17th century, this process would become a way to form a concept of the production of consumer goods, discuss and put into practice.
European cotton printing and dyeing providers and manufacturers are facing huge problems in product development. Competition is not only price, but also styles and quality. However, their success is different in Europe. For example, the production trajectory of cotton textiles in the UK and France is different.
The French ban in 1686 caused the slowdown in the development of domestic cotton and dyeing and even pause. In the United Kingdom on the other side of the strait, the decree in 1702 and 1721 built a line of defense, which caused the domestic cotton printing and dyeing. These two different endings are the result of obvious differences between the legislation of India’s cotton.
Britain allows the printing and dyeing of imported products. After some disputes, the printing and dyeing of flat lines and blending fabrics is also allowed, while France adheres to the comprehensive ban on domestic production. Marseille City, a cotton printing and dyeing center that was prosperous before the end of the 17th century, witnessed the rapid decline of production activities and the banned later banned. A few cities that can continue to engage in cotton printing and dye
Essence In contrast, Britain’s legislation involved in domestic production is quite ambiguous.
▲ France Marseille City
The decree in 1721 allows white cotton to print and dye in China, but this product can only be exported. Moreover, the same decree did not indicate the hemp cloth, what is more important is whether the flat lines, and the printing and dyeing of other parts of cotton textiles are legal.
This problem has been put on hold for more than ten years, and by the beginning of 1730, it has become a “hot topic”, because the production of flat lines and other cotton and linen fabrics at this time has been developed in northwestern United Kingdom. Some wool and silk manufacturers eagerly hoped that the ban in 1721 will be included in the flat lines, because they think that such textiles are their wool, spinning wool and silk competitors in foreign markets.
Other people’s thoughts are more open. They see opportunities and can invest in new business with potential profits as supplements to their core business.
Until 1736, after many efforts of Manchester and Lan Kaixia cotton textile manufacturers, one bill (properly called the Manchester Act) clearly stipulated that “the linen yarn and cotton velvet production products produced by Britain Britain” are legal.
The blurring of British law may be more suitable for the establishment of the domestic cotton textile industry than the rigid French ban. But this is not a simple problem of evasion of the law. In terms of imports and use of Asian fabrics, the Netherlands has never issued any ban and restrictions. As early as 1642, the Netherlands also showed a strong voices that tried to prohibit Asian cotton textiles from the Dutch East India Company.
In 1676 after a generation, Halham City requested the Dutch government forbiding “white and printed, colorful and printed” Indian cotton and printed cotton.
From the mid -17th century to the middle of the 18th century, Leiden’s weaver and fabric merchant, Halham’s silk manufacturer continued to protest, requiring imported products to restrict at least even at least, and required Dutch East India Company Proposal to support the export of Dutch textiles.
The protests have not succeeded, which shows that the commercial interests of the Republic of the Netherlands are above the interests of any city manufacturing. However, in the long run, this may be a decision that violates: the Netherlands is the first country to open a cotton -printed and dyeing workshop in the mid -17th century to imitate India cotton, but the cotton textile industry has not developed.
▲ Halham City, the Town of the Netherlands
Unlike France and Britain, the Dutch printing and dyeing workshop is located in a high -level city area. From a technical point of view, they also have little innovation, and they have been following the traditional practices and blindly expanding production, especially in the most popular market.
Historians believe that the quality is gradually degraded, so that when Oberkampf visited Amsterdam in 1774: “I never thought that the quality they produced was so bad, and it was ten more expensive than our expensive. River. “The lax of the ban in the UK and the abolition in France in 1759 meant a serious blow to the cotton printing and dyeing industry in the Netherlands.
Because the Netherlands has become a large number of cotton fabrics to Europe to trade ports, it has not been able to pay attention to the development of production, nor can they pay attention to the establishment of a solid cotton textile industry. The first “modern economy” failed to become the first “industrial economy”.